Communities uptake

The SPAR Ontologies have drawn the attention of the Semantic Publishing community as a reference point for standardising entity descriptions and fostering interoperability between services. As a demonstration of their adoption, in this page we list all the projects that use any of the SPAR Ontologies and all the scholarly documents that explicitly cite them.

Since both the lists of projects and publications could be not exhaustive, we kindly invite to write us an email for pointing out additional projects and publications and for requesting an update of the description of any of the listed projects. We will be honoured to add them in this page.

Table of contents

  1. Projects
  2. Publications


In this section we list all the projects that use SPAR Ontologies for modelling parts of their domain. The following list of projects (sorted in alphabetic order) was compiled by considering personal communications and by googling about SPAR Ontologies adoption.


The *ALIGNED project* is developing new ways to combine software and data engineering to speed the development of web-based data intensive systems. Within ALIGNED, the [Seshat Global History Databank use case]( is investigating automated SPAR support for creation of bibliographic references for historical, archaeological and social sciences data-sets.


The *Biotea project* comprises and makes available a set of RDF files generated from the open-access subset of PMC and enriched with semantic annotations, a Web Services API for querying the RDF dataset, a SPARQL Protocol and RDF Query Language (SPARQL) endpoint containing a subset of the RDF files as a proof of concept, an article-centric prototype that acts as an interface to the WoD, and an implemented transformation process from our RDF files to Bio2RDF.


*CiteULike* CiteULike is a web service which allows people, such as researchers, to store and share citations to academic papers.

Data on the Web Best Practices: Dataset Usage Vocabulary

The *Data on the Web Best Practices: Dataset Usage Vocabulary* is a W3C Working Draft (28 January 2016) which aims at filling a niche that helps standardize the way Web published dataset usage be conveyed and shared.

The ** portal is the home of Open Linked Data from [The Open University]( They interlink and expose data available in various institutional repositories of the University and make it available openly for reuse.


*DataCite* is an international not-for-profit organization which aims at making data more accessible and more useful, by developing and supporting methods to locate, identify, cite and [describe in RDF]( data and other research objects.


*Dokieli* is a general purpose client-side application for [document authoring, publication and interaction](, which allows users to enable its capabilities according to their needs and technical resources. The editor is built on open Web standards and the documents are compliant with Linked Data best practices.

Europeana Professional

The *Europeana Network* is a community created to shape and promote good practice in the world of digital cultural heritage. Europeana provides a platform that allows people to explore great achievements from the past to achieve great things in the future. They bring together the organisations that have heritage to share with the people and sectors who want to view, share and build with that heritage.

Linked Chemistry

*Linked Chemistry* is a website that hosts linked chemical data, where with "linked" they refers to using dereferenceable IRIs and the Resource Description Framework (RDF).

Linked Education

*Linked Education* aims at sharing resources and information related to educational Linked Data. In particular, it aims at facilitating and promoting the Web-scale sharing of educational data and resources based on state-of-the-art Linked Data principles.

Linked Open Vocabularies

The *Linked Open Vocabularies Dataset* (*LOV*) describes the growing ecosystem of linked open vocabularies (RDFS or OWL ontologies) used in the Linked Data Cloud.

Media type as Linked Open Data

The *Media type as Linked Open Data* is a Web space reserved for providing a description in RDF of all the media types available at the official [IANA webpage]( The RDF representation of each media type is accessible by concatenating the URL with the identifier of the media type of interest (e.g.,

Nature Ontologies

The * Ontologies* portal describes the approach adopted in [Springer Nature]( for using Linked Data technologies to manage the publishing of []( titles.

Open Citations

The *Open Citations Corpus* (*OCC*) is a new open repository of scholarly citation data. Its objective is to provide accurate bibliographic citation data that others may freely build upon, enhance and reuse for any purpose. It does this by making the citation data available under a Creative Commons CC0 1.0 public domain dedication, without restriction under copyright or database law.


*PDFX* is a rule-based system for analysing scientific publications in PDF form and recovering their fine-grained logical and rhetorical structures . Its analysis result is stored in an XML format that describes the document's organisation into logical units, and also links it to geometrical typesetting markers in the original PDF, such as column or page break.


*PubChemRDF* is an RDF triplestore which includes a number of semantic relationships, such as those between compounds and substances, the chemical descriptors associated with compounds and substances, the relationships between compounds, the provenance and attribution metadata of substances, and the concise bioactivity data view of substances.

RASH Framework

The *RASH Framework* is a set of specifications and writing/conversion/extraction tools for writing academic articles in [RASH](, i.e., a markup language defined as a subset of HTML+RDF for writing scientific articles.

The tools proposed by ** aims at simplifying the publishing process of scientific articles by means of Web technologies and conversion strategies from well-known document formats. One of its output is the [Scholarly Article Ontology](, which is used to describe, semantically, document components.

Semantic Lancet

The *Semantic Lancet Project* is focused on building a Linked Open Dataset on scholarly publications. The current dataset contains metadata about all papers published in the [Journal of Web Semantics]( by Elsevier.

Semantic Science

*Semantic Science* is a new community portal to support the development of Semantic Web technologies (guides/presentations, RDF/OWL ontologies, knowledge systems) to facilitate the management, integration and discovery of scientific knowledge.

Utopia Documents

*Utopia Documents* is a PDF-reader designed to improve the user's experience of reading scholarly papers (particularly in the domain of the Life Sciences) by linking the article and its contents to online resources.


*VIVO* is an open source Semantic Web application that enables the discovery of research and scholarship across disciplines at that institution and beyond. VIVO supports browsing and a search function which returns faceted results for rapid retrieval of desired information.


In this section we list all the publications citing any of the SPAR Ontologies. In particular, we consider all the scholarly works retrieved by using Google Scholar. For creating the list, we did not consider any self citation and we took into consideration only the papers that comply with one of the following criteria:

Last update: July 11, 2015.

  1. A Challenge Of Research Outputs In Gl Circuit: From Open Access To Open Use, by S Parinov, M Kogalovsky, V Lyapunov
  2. A Collaborative Methodology For Developing A Semantic Model For Interlinking Cancer Chemoprevention Linked-Data Sources, by D Zeginis, A Hasnain, N Loutas, H Deus, et al.
  3. A Hybrid Semantic Approach To Building Dynamic Maps Of Research Communities, by F Osborne, G Scavo, E Motta
  4. A Method For Defining Human-Machine Micro-Task Workflows For Gathering Legal Information, by N Luz, N Silva, P Novais
  5. A Preliminary Study On The Semantic Representation Of The Notes To Dante Alighieri'S Convivio, by V Bartalesi, E Locuratolo, L Versienti, et al.
  6. A Review Of Argumentation For The Social Semantic Web, by J Schneider, T Groza, A Passant
  7. A Review Of Linked Data Proposals In The Learning Domain, by G Vega
  8. A Review Of Ontologies For Describing Scholarly And Scientific Documents, by A Ruiz-Iniesta, O Corcho
  9. A Simple Scheme For Bibliography Acquisition Using Doi Content Negotiation Proxy, by K Ma, B Yang
  10. A Specialisation Of The Europeana Data Model For The Representation Of Manuscripts: The Dm2E Model, by E Dröge, J Iwanowa, S Hennicke
  11. A User-Centric Model To Semantically Annotate And Retrieve Scientific Documents, by H de Ribaupierre, G Falquet
  12. A Vague Sense Classifier For Detecting Vague Definitions In Ontologies, by P Alexopoulos, J Pavlopoulos
  13. A-Posteriori Provenance-Enabled Linking Of Publications And Datasets Via Crowdsourcing, by L Dragan, M Luczak
  14. Accessing Biological Data With Semantic Web Technologies, by E Willighagen
  15. Advances In Semantic Authoring And Publishing, by T Groza
  16. An Ontology Design Pattern For Cooking Recipes–Classroom Created, by M Sam, AA Krisnadhi, C Wang, J Gallagher, P Hitzler
  17. Analisi Di Riferimenti Bibliografici In Documenti Xml, by F Poggi, A Demian
  18. Annotating Evidence Based Clinical Guidelines, by R Hoekstra, A de Waard, R Vdovjak
  19. BM2LOD: Platform For Publishing Bibliographic Data As Linked Open Data, by YH Delgado, LR Álvarez, AL Mederos, MMR García, et al.
  20. Biotea: Rdfizing Pubmed Central In Support For The Paper As An Interface To The Web Of Data, by LJG Castro, C McLaughlin, A Garcia
  21. Citations And Annotations In Classics: Old Problems And New Perspectives, by M Romanello, M Pasin
  22. Collaborative Information Management In Scientific Research Processes, by S Crompton, C Neylon, B Matthews, et al.
  23. Conceptual Exploration Of Documents And Digital Libraries In The Biomedical Domain, by LJG Castro, J Gómez, A Garcia
  24. Creating Linked Data From Relational Databases, by N Konstantinou, DE Spanos
  25. Crowdsourced Semantic Annotation Of Scientific Publications, by J Takis, S Auer
  26. Deliverable 300.2 Analysis Of Existing Technical Solutions, by S Ventouras, S Callaghan, J Blower, JB Lankester, et al.
  27. Developing Ontology For The University Archives, by Ι Κυριάκη
  28. Developing Ontology For The University Archives: The Domain Of Technological Education, by D Kyriaki
  29. Dm2E Model V 1.0 Specification, by E Dröge, S Hennicke, J Iwanowa, KE Uma
  30. Do Czego Potrzebne Są Nam Ontologie? Charakterystyka Funkcjonalna Ontologii Jako NarzęDzi Reprezentacji Wiedzy, by M Roszkowski
  31. Epub3 For Integrated And Customizable Representation Of A Scientific Publication And Its Associated Resources, by HG Sigarchian, B De Meester, T De Nies, R Verborgh, et al.
  32. Estrazione E Annotazione Di Una Rete Citazionale Da Articoli Scientifici, by A Di Iorio, A De Troia
  33. Expanded Citations And Projections Of Concepts, by M Skulimowski
  34. Exploring Bibliographies For Research-Related Tasks, by A Di Iorio, R Giannella, F Poggi, F Vitali
  35. Exploring The Betrothed Lovers, by A Bolioli, M Casu, M Lana, R Roda
  36. Extending Bibliographic Information Using Linked Data, by ZY Park
  37. Extraction And Characterization Of Citations In Scientific Papers, by M Bertin, I Atanassova
  38. FRBR, Information, And Intertextuality, by P Rafferty
  39. FRBR, Twenty Years On, by K Coyle
  40. Fabrico/Ciência: Um Ambiente Linked Data Para O Mapeamento Da Ciência, by RP da Rocha
  41. From Linked Data To Concept Networks, by M Skulimowski
  42. Harmonizing Services For Lod Vocabularies: A Case Study, by GA Atemezing, B Vatant, R Troncy, PY Vandenbussche
  43. Hybrid Approach For The Semantic Processing Of Scientific Papers, by M Bertin, I Atanassova
  44. Information And Communication Technology, by D Spohr, P Cimiano
  45. Integración De Contenidos Semánticos En Un Portal Web De Científicos Y Humanistas Valencianos: Vestigium, by A García
  46. Integrating Linked Data Into Discovery, by G Hatop
  47. Integration Of Legal Datasets: From Meta-Model To Implementation, by G Barabucci, A Di Iorio, F Poggi, F Vitali
  48. Intercom Specification 1.0 (Draft), by S Crompton, B Matthews, J Casson, A Shaon, et al.
  49. Knowledge Network Of Scientific Claims Derived From A Semantic Publication System, by CH Marcondes
  50. Legal Datasets Integration: Keep It Simple, Keep It Real, by G Barabucci, A Di Iorio, F Poggi
  51. Les Référentiels: Typologie Et Interopérabilité, by A Isaac
  52. Lessons Learned: The Complexity Of Accurate Identification Of In-Text Citations, by A Shahid, M Afzal, MA Qadir
  53. Linked Data E Bibliometriche: Un Indice Di Multidisciplinarieta Nel Semantic Publishing, by F Vitali, M Costa, A Bagnacani
  54. Linked Data For Science And Education, by C Keßler, M d'Aquin, S Dietze
  55. Linked Data Tools: Connecting On The Web, by K Coyle
  56. Linked Data-A Paradigm Shift For Geographic Information Science, by W Kuhn, T Kauppinen, K Janowicz
  57. Linked Open Data, by D King
  58. Linked Open Data Literacy For Librarians, by J Hügi, R Schneider
  59. Linkedcj: A Knowledge Base Of Chinese Academic Journals Based On Linked Data, by P Xu, X Wang, H Wang
  60. Measuring Academic Influence: Not All Citations Are Equal, by X Zhu, P Turney, D Lemire, et al.
  61. Metadata Elements, by K Coyle
  62. Metadata Issues In Digital Libraries: Key Concepts And Perspectives, by I Solodovnik
  63. Metodologia De Organização Da Informação De Participação Social, by PRM Meirelles
  64. Micropublications: A Semantic Model For Claims, Evidence, Arguments And Annotations In Biomedical Communications, by T Clark, P Ciccarese, C Goble
  65. Mining Scientific Papers For Bibliometrics: A (Very) Brief Survey Of Methods And Tools, by I Atanassova, M Bertin, P Mayr
  66. Multi-Entity Models Of Resource Description In The Semantic Web: A Comparison Of FRBR, RDA And Bibframe, by T Baker, K Coyle, S Petiya
  67. New Artifacts For The Knowledge Discovery Via Data Analytics (Kdda) Process, by Y Li
  68. Odin: The Orcid And Datacite Interoperability Network, by M Fenner, LL Haak, GA Thorisson, et al.
  69. On Expanded Citations, by M Skulimowski
  70. On Managing Prefixes For Vocabularies Published In Lod, by GA Atemezing, B Vatant, PY Vanderbussche, R Troncy
  71. Ontologias Para A Descoberta De Recursos Na Ciência: AnáLise De Vivo-Isf, by IO Turcatel
  72. Ontologies And Languages For Representing Mathematical Knowledge On The Semantic Web, by C Lange
  73. Ontology Engineering With Racerpro, by A Groza
  74. Open Repository Of Semantic Linkages, by S Parinov
  75. Ore User Guide-Resource Map Implementation In Json-Ld, by S Warner, OAIO Reuse
  76. Out Of Cite, Out Of Mind: The Current State Of Practice, Policy, And Technology For The Citation Of Data, by CI Task Group on Data Citation Standards
  77. PAV Ontology: Provenance, Authoring And Versioning, by P Ciccarese, S Soiland
  78. Parlbench: A Sparql Benchmark For Electronic Publishing Applications, by T Tarasova, M Marx
  79. Pdfx: Fully-Automated Pdf-To-Xml Conversion Of Scientific Literature, by A Constantin, S Pettifer, A Voronkov
  80. Precise Information Retrieval In Semantic Scientific Digital Libraries, by H de Ribaupierre
  81. Pundit: Augmenting Web Contents With Semantics, by M Grassi, C Morbidoni, M Nucci, S Fonda, et al.
  82. Pundit: Creating, Exploring And Consuming Semantic Annotations, by M Grassi, C Morbidoni, M Nucci, S Fonda, F Di Donato
  83. RDF 化した MESH とライフサイエンス辞書を利用した生命科学概念に基づく日本語レビュー記事の絞り込み検索, by 山本泰智
  84. Rdfising Pubmed Central, by A Garcia, LJ Garcia, C McLaughlin, et al.
  85. Recommending Research Articles Using Citation Data, by A Vellino
  86. Remember, Restructure, Reuse-Adding Value To Compound Scholarly Publications In A Digital Networked Environment, by A Boulal, M Iordanidis, A Quast
  87. Report On Task Force On Edm Mappings, Refinements And Extensions, by H Vanstappen, P Bellini, ER Bailly, MR Stein, S Gehrke, et al.
  88. Representing And Organizing Scientific Knowledge In Biomedical Articles With Semantic Web Technologies, by H Marcondes
  89. Scientific Discourse On The Semantic Web: A Survey Of Models And Enabling Technologies, by SB Shum, T Clark, A de Waard, et al.
  90. See: Structured Representation Of Scientific Evidence In The Biomedical Domain Using Semantic Web Techniques, by C Bölling, M Weidlich, et al.
  91. Semantic Annotation Of Pubchem Database, by G Fu, C Batchelor, M Dumontier, J Hastings, H Küçük, et al.
  92. Semantic Human-Machine Computation Workflows, by N Luza, N Silvaa, P Novaisb
  93. Semantic Linkages In Research Information Systems As A New Data Source For Scientometric Studies, by S Parinov, M Kogalovsky
  94. Semantic Publishing Challenge–Assessing The Quality Of Scientific Output, by C Lange, A Di Iorio
  95. Semantic Web Research On Music And Humanities: Project Report, by M Mora
  96. Semantically Enabling A Genome-Wide Association Study Database, by T Beck, RC Free, GA Thorisson…
  97. Semantically Enriched Owl-S Files For Mathematical Web Services, by A Sheeba, A Chandrasekar, P Veerasingam
  98. Semantically Linking Humanities Research Articles And Music Artists, by M Mora
  99. Semantically Representing Informal Argumentation From The Social Web, by T Blount
  100. Semantify Ceur-Ws Proceedings: Towards The Automatic Generation Of Highly Descriptive Scholarly Publishing Linked Datasets, by F Ronzano, GC del Bosque, H Saggion
  101. Sentiment, Polarity And Function Analysis In Bibliometrics: A Review, by M Hernández, JM Gómez
  102. Sheldon: Semantic Holistic Framework For Linked Ontology Data, by DR Recupero, AG Nuzzolese, S Consoli, et al.
  103. Social Network Technologies For Semantic Linking Of Information Objects In Scientific Digital Library, by MR Kogalovsky, SI Parinov
  104. Special Issue On Alternative Metrics, by VP Guerrero
  105. Supporting Information Sharing For Reuse And Analysis Of Scientific Research Publication Data, by FJ Ekaputra, M Sabou, E Serral, et al.
  106. Technical Specification, by E Dröge, J Iwanowa, KE UMA, S Hennicke, KB EL
  107. Text Encoding Initiative Semantic Modeling. A Conceptual Workflow Proposal, by F Ciotti, M Daquino, F Tomasi
  108. The Chembl Database As Linked Open Data, by EL Willighagen, A Waagmeester, O Spjuth, et al.
  109. The Linked TEI: Text Encoding In The Web, by M Beißwenger, L Lemnitzer
  110. The Second British Library Datacite Workshop, by A Ball
  111. The Wider Landscape, by D Morse, D King
  112. Towards Facilitating Scientific Publishing And Knowledge Exchange Through Linked Data, by S Auer, C Lange, T Ermilov
  113. Towards The Interoperable Data Environment For Facilities Science, by V Bunakov, C Jones, B Matthews
  114. Towards Vagueness-Oriented Quality Assessment Of Ontologies, by P Alexopoulos, P Mylonas
  115. Twitter In The Cross Fire—The Use Of Social Media In The Westgate Mall Terror Attack In Kenya, by T Simon, A Goldberg, L Aharonson
  116. Un Ambiente User-Friendly Per Esplorare Articoli Scientifici E Bibliografie, by F Vitali, A Di Iorio, R Giannella
  117. Un Modèle D'Annotation Sémantique Centré Sur Les Utilisateurs De Documents Scientifiques: Cas D'Utilisation Dans Les Études Genre, by H De Ribaupierre, G Falquet
  118. Understanding Climate Data Through Commentary Metadata: The Charme Project, by JD Blower, R Alegre, VL Bennett, DJ Clifford, et al.
  119. Using Linked Data Traversal To Label Academic Communities, by I Tiddi, M d'Aquin, E Motta
  120. Vokabulare FüR Bibliographische Daten, by C Klee
  121. Webtracks Demontrators, by S Crompton, B Matthews
  122. What Can The Ontology Describe? Visualizing Local Coverage In Puro Modeler, by M Dudáš, T Hanzal, V Svátek
  123. What's In This Paper?: Combining Rhetorical Entities With Linked Open Data For Semantic Literature Querying, by B Sateli, R Witte
  124. Why And Where Wikipedia Is Cited In Journal Articles?, by F Tohidinasab, HR Jamali
  125. Wissenschaftliche Dokumente Mit Domänenspezifischen Inhalten, by S Hodapp
  126. Zadarski Slon I Komarac—Polemika Nardina Celineja I Paladija Fuska Iz 1513., by N Jovanović
  127. Концептуальна модель наукових інформаційних ресурсів нан україни, by ГЮ Проскудіна, ВА Резніченко
  128. Концептуальная модель научной публикации, by ВА Резниченко, ГЮ Проскудина, ОМ Овдий
  129. Концептуальная модель научных информационных ресурсов НАН Украины, by ГЮ Проскудина, ВА Резниченко
  130. Научные коммуникации на базе электронных библиотек с онлайновой декларацией семантических связей, by МР Когаловский, СИ Паринов
  131. Новый источник данных для наукометрических исследований, by МР Когаловский, СИ Паринов
  132. Онтологическое аннотирование библиографических ссылок в научных публикациях, by МР Когаловский
  133. Семантическое структурирование контента научных электронных библиотек на основе онтологий, by МР Когаловский, СИ Паринов
  134. Технология семантического структурирования контента научных электронных библиотек, by СИ Паринов, МР Когаловский
  135. Формальная модель научной публикации, by ВА Резниченко, ГЮ Проскудина…
  136. 基于科研人员本体的知识产出自动获取方法与技术研究, by 卢利农, 祝忠明, 张旺强, 李慧佳
  137. 生命科学分野の学術文献情報からなるリンクトデータの構築, by 藤原豊史, 松宮遼, 山本泰智
  138. 科研过程知识产出语义关联组织模型构建研究, by M Yumeng, Z Zhongming
  139. 面向引用关系的引文内容标注框架研究, by 陆伟, 孟睿, 刘兴帮
  140. 링크드 데이터 방식을 통한 서지 정보의 확장에 관한 연구, by 박지영