Examples of use

In this page we have collected several examples of use of SPAR Ontologies for describing the various aspects of the publishing domain. Those are the same examples available in all the pages introducing the various SPAR Ontologies. However, the examples are here listed together in order to compose a sort of cookbook for all the SPAR Ontologies. All the sources of the examples below are stored in figshare for easy citing.

Each example is characterised by:

Table of contents

  1. Author's affiliations in papers
  2. Datasets' DOIs and authors' ORCIDs
  3. Conversion of a DataCite XML document into RDF
  4. Rating an article with the Five Stars of Online Journal Articles
  5. Describing a bibliographic entity
  6. Specifying ordered lists of authors
  7. Associating keywords, subject terms and disciplines to a paper
  8. Describing citation contexts
  9. Keeping track of global citation count
  10. Defining citation links and their functions
  11. Annotating a citation with an additional text-defined citation function
  12. Annotating an in-text reference pointer with a citation function
  13. Specifying roles and contributions of an investigation
  14. Defining equal principal authorship roles
  15. Describing the publishing workflow
  16. Describing fundings, investigations and research outputs
  17. Using FRBR for describing a bibliographic entity
  18. Describing the structure of an article
  19. Sentences containing references to bibliographic items
  20. Assigning statuses to a paper
  21. Specifying the impact factor of a journal
  22. Assigning a research career category to a person
  23. Conference rank and average of reviews per paper
  24. Defining bibliographic references and reference lists
  25. Describing parts of a reference
  26. Semantic enhancement of reference parts with EARMARK ranges
  27. Tagging paper blocks with rhetoric entities

Author's affiliations in papers

The description of the authors of papers and, in particular, which affiliation they have specified in the context of a particular paper is a crucial aspect to take into account when describing authors' roles. However, several existing ontologies, such as the [Semantic Web Conference Ontology](http://data.semanticweb.org/ns/swc/ontology), do not allow one to discern the context in which an person-role association holds. For instance, consider an author having different institutional affiliations in the context of different publications (e.g., because he/she moved from one to the other). In order to address this issue, [PRO](/ontologies/pro) provides a convenient way to describe all the contextualised and possibly time-indexed person-role associations, in order to provide a complete picture of how roles relate with person and in which contexts.

@prefix : <http://www.sparontologies.net/example/> .
@prefix dogfood: <http://data.semanticweb.org/organization/> .
@prefix foaf: <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/> .
@prefix pro: <http://purl.org/spar/pro/> .
@prefix scoro: <http://purl.org/spar/scoro/> .
@prefix ti: <http://www.ontologydesignpatterns.org/cp/owl/timeinterval.owl#> .
@prefix tvc: <http://www.essepuntato.it/2012/04/tvc/> .
@prefix xsd: <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .

:silvio-peroni a foaf:Person ;
    foaf:name "Silvio Peroni" ;
    pro:holdsRoleInTime
        :silvio-peroni-author ,
        :silvio-peroni-at-kmi ,
        :silvio-peroni-at-unibo .

:silvio-peroni-author a pro:RoleInTime ;
    pro:withRole pro:author ;
    pro:relatesToDocument
        <http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-89704-0_17> ,
        <http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1600193.1600232> .

:silvio-peroni-at-unibo a pro:RoleInTime ;
    pro:withRole scoro:affiliate ;
    pro:relatesToDocument
        <http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1600193.1600232> ;
    pro:relatesToOrganization
        dogfood:university-of-bologna ;
    tvc:atTime :unibo-affiliation-time .

:unibo-affiliation-time a ti:TimeInterval ;
    ti:hasIntervalStartDate
        "2009-01-01T00:00:00Z"^^xsd:dateTime .

:silvio-peroni-at-kmi a pro:RoleInTime ;
    pro:withRole scoro:affiliate ;
    pro:relatesToDocument
        <http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-89704-0_17> ;
    pro:relatesToOrganization
        dogfood:kmi-the-open-university-uk ;
    tvc:atTime :kmi-affiliation-time .

:kmi-affiliation-time a ti:TimeInterval ;
    ti:hasIntervalStartDate
        "2008-04-01T00:00:00Z"^^xsd:dateTime ;
    ti:hasIntervalEndDate
        "2008-09-30T23:59:59Z"^^xsd:dateTime .

Please cite the source above with the following reference:

Peroni, Silvio (2015): Example of use of PRO #1. figshare. http://dx.doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.1538655


Datasets' DOIs and authors' ORCIDs

[DataCite](/ontologies/datacite) allows one to associate identifiers to a bibliographic entity (e.g., a dataset, a person, an article) specifying their exact nature by means of the object property ``datacite:usesIdentifierScheme``. In addition, it is also possible, through the object property ``datacite:hasDescription``, to link an entity to another item representing an entity description of a particular type. This is defined using the property ``datacite:hasDescriptionType``, which must have as its object one of the members of the class datacite:DescriptionType, i.e., ``datacite:abstract``, ``datacite:other``, ``datacite:series-information``, ``datacite:methods``, and ``datacite:table-of-content``. In this way it is possible to associate written documents (e.g., journal articles) as descriptions of datasets.

@prefix : <http://www.sparontologies.net/example/> .
@prefix datacite: <http://purl.org/spar/datacite/> .
@prefix dcterms: <http://purl.org/dc/terms/> .
@prefix fabio: <http://purl.org/spar/fabio/> .
@prefix foaf: <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/> .
@prefix literal: <http://www.essepuntato.it/2010/06/literalreification/> .
@prefix orcid: <http://orcid.org/> .

<http://dx.doi.org/10.5061/dryad.15v26> a fabio:Dataset ;
    datacite:hasIdentifier :dataset-doi ;
    dcterms:creator
        orcid:0000-0002-5159-9717 ,
        orcid:0000-0002-7811-3617 ;
    datacite:hasDescription
        <http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2015.0486> .

<http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2015.0486>
    a fabio:JournalArticle ;
    datacite:hasIdentifier :paper-doi ;
    dcterms:creator
        orcid:0000-0002-5159-9717 ,
        orcid:0000-0002-7811-3617 ;
    datacite:hasDescriptionType datacite:other .

:paper-doi a datacite:PrimaryResourceIdentifier ;
    literal:hasLiteralValue "10.1098/rsbl.2015.0486" ;
    datacite:usesIdentifierScheme datacite:doi .

:dataset-doi a datacite:PrimaryResourceIdentifier ;
    literal:hasLiteralValue "10.5061/dryad.mq8r2" ;
    datacite:usesIdentifierScheme datacite:doi .

orcid:0000-0002-5159-9717 a foaf:Person ;
    foaf:name "Nidhi Seethapathi" ;
    datacite:hasIdentifier :seethapathi-orcid .

:seethapathi-orcid a datacite:PersonalIdentifier ;
    literal:hasLiteralValue "0000-0002-5159-9717" ;
    datacite:usesIdentifierScheme datacite:orcid .

orcid:0000-0002-7811-3617 a foaf:Person ;
    foaf:name "Manoj Srinivasan" ;
    datacite:hasIdentifier :srinivasan-orcid .

:srinivasan-orcid a datacite:PersonalIdentifier ;
    literal:hasLiteralValue "0000-0002-7811-3617" ;
    datacite:usesIdentifierScheme datacite:orcid .

Please cite the source above with the following reference:

Peroni, Silvio (2015): Example of use of DataCite #1. figshare. http://dx.doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.1554708


Conversion of a DataCite XML document into RDF

This Turtle file is the RDF converted version of the exemplar DataCite XML document available at http://schema.datacite.org/meta/kernel-3.1/example/datacite-example-full-v3.1.xml. The conversion has been made by taking into account the guidelines available at the following document: <p class="cite bg-info">Peroni, S., Shotton, D., Ashton, J., Barton, A. J., Gramsbergen, E., Jacquemot, M.-C. (2016). DataCite2RDF: Mapping DataCite Metadata Schema 3.1 Terms to RDF. Version 3.2. http://dx.doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.2075356</p>

@prefix : <http://schema.datacite.org/meta/kernel-3.1/example/> .
@prefix cito: <http://purl.org/spar/cito/> .
@prefix datacite: <http://purl.org/spar/datacite/> .
@prefix dcmitype: <http://purl.org/dc/dcmitype/> .
@prefix dcterms: <http://purl.org/dc/terms/> .
@prefix fabio: <http://purl.org/spar/fabio/> .
@prefix foaf: <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/> .
@prefix frapo: <http://purl.org/cerif/frapo/> .
@prefix geo: <http://www.opengis.net/ont/geosparql#> .
@prefix literal: <http://www.essepuntato.it/2010/06/literalreification/> .
@prefix prism: <http://prismstandard.org/namespaces/basic/2.0/> .
@prefix pro: <http://purl.org/spar/pro/> .
@prefix rdf: <http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#> .
@prefix scoro: <http://purl.org/spar/scoro/> .
@prefix sf: <http://www.opengis.net/ont/sf#> .
@prefix skos: <http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#> .
@prefix xsd: <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .

:datacite-example-full-v3.1
    datacite:hasIdentifier 
        :datacite-example-full-v3.1-primary-id ,
        :datacite-example-full-v3.1-alternate-id ;
    dcterms:creator :elisabeth-miller ;
    dcterms:title "Full DataCite XML Example"@en-us ;
    fabio:hasSubtitle "Demonstration of DataCite Properties."@en-us ;
    dcterms:publisher :datacite ;
    fabio:hasPublicationYear "2014"^^xsd:gYear ;
    dcterms:subject :computer-science ;
    dcterms:contributor :joan-starr ;
    dcterms:modified "2014-10-17"^^xsd:date ;
    dcterms:language :en-us ;
    a fabio:DataFile ;
    datacite:hasGeneralResourceType dcmitype:Software ;
    cito:citesAsMetadataDocument 
    	:datacite-example-full-v3.1-metadata-document ;
    cito:isReviewedBy :reviewing-document ;
    dcterms:extent :datacite-example-full-v3.1-size ;
    dcterms:format <https://w3id.org/spar/mediatype/application/xml> ;
    prism:versionIdentifier "3.1" ;
    dcterms:rights :datacite-example-full-v3.1-rights ;
    datacite:hasDescription :datacite-example-full-v3.1-abstract ;
    dcterms:spatial :atlantic-ocean .
       
:datacite-example-full-v3.1-primary-id 
	a datacite:PrimaryResourceIdentifier ;
    datacite:usesIdentifierScheme datacite:doi ;
    literal:hasLiteralValue "10.5072/example-full" .

:datacite-example-full-v3.1-alternate-id 
	a datacite:AlternateResourceIdentifier ;
    datacite:usesIdentifierScheme datacite:url ;
    literal:hasLiteralValue 
    	"http://schema.datacite.org/schema/meta/kernel-3.1/example/datacite-example-full-v3.1.xml" .
   
:elisabeth-miller a foaf:Person ;
    foaf:name "Miller, Elizabeth" ;
    datacite:hasIdentifier :elisabeth-miller-orcid ;
    pro:holdsRoleInTime :elisabeth-miller-affiliation .
   
:elisabeth-miller-orcid a datacite:PersonalIdentifier ;
    datacite:usesIdentifierScheme datacite:orcid ;
    literal:hasLiteralValue "0000-0001-5000-0007" .
   
:elisabeth-miller-affiliation a pro:RoleInTime ;
    pro:withRole scoro:affiliate ;
    pro:relatesToOrganization :datacite ;
    pro:relatesToEntity :datacite-example-full-v3.1 .

:datacite a foaf:Organization ;
    foaf:name "DataCite" .

:computer-science a skos:Concept ;
    skos:prefLabel "000 computer science"@en-us ;
    skos:inScheme <http://dewey.info/> .
 
 :joan-starr a foaf:Person ;
    foaf:name "Starr, Joan" ;
    datacite:hasIdentifier :joan-starr-orcid ;
    pro:holdsRoleInTime 
        :joan-starr-project-leader ,
        :joan-starr-affiliation .
    
:joan-starr-orcid a datacite:PersonalIdentifier ;
    datacite:usesIdentifierScheme datacite:orcid ;
    literal:hasLiteralValue "0000-0001-5000-0007" .
   
 :joan-starr-project-leader a pro:RoleInTime ;
    pro:withRole scoro:project-leader ;
    pro:relatesToEntity :datacite-example-full-v3.1 .
 
:joan-starr-affiliation a pro:RoleInTime ;
    pro:withRole scoro:affiliate ;
    pro:relatesToOrganization :california-digital-library ;
    pro:relatesToEntity :datacite-example-full-v3.1 .

:california-digital-library a foaf:Organization ;
    foaf:name "California Digital Library" .

:en-us a dcterms:LinguisticSystem ;
    dcterms:description "en-us"^^dcterms:RFC5646 .

:datacite-example-full-v3.1-metadata-document a fabio:MetadataDocument ;
    datacite:hasIdentifier :datacite-example-full-v3.1-metadata-document-id ;
    datacite:usesMetadataScheme :citeproc-json .

:datacite-example-full-v3.1-metadata-document-id a datacite:ResourceIdentifier ;
    datacite:usesIdentifierScheme datacite:url ;
    literal:hasLiteralValue "http://data.datacite.org/application/citeproc+json/10.5072/example-full" .

:citeproc-json a datacite:MetadataScheme ;
    fabio:hasURL 
    	"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-data.json"^^xsd:anyURI .

:reviewing-document
    datacite:hasIdentifier :reviewing-document-id .

:reviewing-document-id a datacite:ResourceIdentifier ;
    datacite:usesIdentifierScheme datacite:arxiv ;
    literal:hasLiteralValue "arXiv:0706.0001" .

:datacite-example-full-v3.1-size 
	a dcterms:SizeOrDuration ;
    rdf:value "3KB" .

:datacite-example-full-v3.1-rights 
	a dcterms:RightsStatement ;
    literal:hasLiteralValue "CC0 1.0 Universal" ;
    fabio:hasURL 
    	"http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/"^^xsd:anyURI .

:datacite-example-full-v3.1-abstract
    datacite:hasDescriptionType datacite:abstract ;
    literal:hasLiteralValue 
    	"XML example of all DataCite Metadata Schema v3.1 properties." .

:atlantic-ocean a geo:Feature;
    geo:hasGeometry 
        :atlantic-ocean-lat-long ,
        :atlantic-ocean-box ;
    frapo:hasLocation "Atlantic Ocean" .

:atlantic-ocean-lat-long a sf:Point ;
    geo:asWKT "POINT(31.233 -67.302)"^^geo:wktLiteral .

:atlantic-ocean-box a sf:Polygon ;
    geo:asWKT 
    	"POLYGON(41.090 -71.032, 41.090 -68.211, 42.893 -68.211, 42.893 -71.032, 41.090 -71.032)"^^geo:wktLiteral .

Please cite the source above with the following reference:

Peroni, Silvio (2016): Example of use of DataCite #2. figshare. https://dx.doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.2075353


Rating an article with the Five Stars of Online Journal Articles

The [Five Stars of Online Journal Articles Ontology](/ontologies/fivestars) allows to encode ratings machine-readable form according to five different criteria, i.e., peer review, open access, enhanced content, available datasets, and machine-readable metadata. This example shows the Five Stars ratings for the following article (from which the example is extracted): <p class="cite bg-info">Shotton, D. (2012). The Five Stars of Online Journal Articles - a Framework for Article Evaluation. In D-Lib Magazine, 18 (1/2). http://dx.doi.org/10.1045/january2012-shotton</p>

@prefix fivestars: <http://purl.org/spar/fivestars/> .
@prefix xsd: <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .

<http://dx.doi.org/10.1045/january2012-shotton>
    fivestars:hasPeerReviewRating
        "3"^^xsd:nonNegativeInteger ;
    fivestars:peerReviewRatingComment
        "Post-publication responsive peer review of the preprint." ;

    fivestars:hasOpenAccessRating
        "4"^^xsd:nonNegativeInteger ;
    fivestars:openAccessRatingComment
        "Gold/libre open access without author fee!" ;

    fivestars:hasEnhancedContentRating
        "1"^^xsd:nonNegativeInteger ;
    fivestars:enhancedContentRatingComment
        "Plentiful Web links in text and to all references. No
        additional semantic enhancement of text." ;

    fivestars:hasAvailableDatasetsRating
        "0"^^xsd:nonNegativeInteger ;

    fivestars:hasMachine-readableMetadataRating
        "1"^^xsd:nonNegativeInteger ;
    fivestars:machine-readableMetadataRatingComment
        "Structural markup in HTML only." ;

    fivestars:hasOverallFiveStarsRating
        "9"^^xsd:nonNegativeInteger ;
    fivestars:overallFiveStarsRatingComment
        "The nature of this article, being a position paper rather
        than a research paper with primary research data, has
        influenced the overall rating obtained." .

Please cite the source above with the following reference:

Peroni, Silvio (2015): Example of use of Five* #1. figshare. http://dx.doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.1560007


Describing a bibliographic entity

[FaBiO](/ontologies/fabio) allows one to describe information related to a bibliographic entity such as the following one: >Pompeu Casanovas, Núria Casellas, Christoph Tempich, Denny Vrandečić, Richard Benjamins (2007). OPJK and DILIGENT: ontology modeling in a distributed environment. Artificial Intelligence and Law, 15 (2): 171-186. June 2007. Springer. DOI: 10.1007/s10506-007-9036-2. Print ISSN 0924-8463. Online ISSN 1572-8382. Published online (PDF) May 31, 2007. From the previous reference we can extract the following information: 1. the document is an academic research article – deducible from the journal in which it is published; 2. Pompeu Casanovas, Núria Casellas, Christoph Tempich, Denny Vrandečić, and Richard Benjamins are the authors of the article; 3. the article was published in 2007; 4. the article is entitled "OPJK and DILIGENT: ontology modeling in a distributed environment"; 5. it was published in the 2nd issue of the 15th volume of Artificial Intelligence and Law; 6. the DOI of the article is "10.1007/s10506-007-9036-2"; 7. the Print ISSN of the journal is "0924-8463"; 8. the Online ISSN of the journal is "1572-8382"; 9. the PDF version of the article was published online on May 31, 2007; 10. the journal issue within which the printed version of the article was published bears the publication date June 2007; 11. the page range of the article within the printed version is "171-186"; 12. the publisher of the journal is Springer. By using FaBiO entities, which also include part of the <a href="http://www.ifla.org/publications/functional-requirements-for-bibliographic-records">FRBR</a>, <a href="http://dublincore.org/documents/dcmi-terms/">DC Terms</a> and <a href="http://www.prismstandard.org/resources/mod_prism.html">PRISM</a> vocabularies, it is possible to create a full description of all the aspects introduced by the aforementioned twelve points.

@prefix : <http://www.sparontologies.net/example/> .
@prefix application: <http://purl.org/NET/mediatypes/application/> .
@prefix fabio: <http://purl.org/spar/fabio/> .
@prefix frbr: <http://purl.org/vocab/frbr/core#> .
@prefix prism: <http://prismstandard.org/namespaces/basic/2.0/> .
@prefix rdf: <http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#> .
@prefix rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> .
@prefix xsd: <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix dcterms: <http://purl.org/dc/terms/> .
@prefix foaf: <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/> .

:opjk-and-diligent a fabio:ResearchPaper ;
    dcterms:creator :casanovas , :casellas,
        :tempich, :vrandecic, :benjamins ;
    frbr:realization :version-of-record .

:version-of-record a fabio:JournalArticle ;
    dcterms:title "OPJK and DILIGENT: ontology
        modeling in a distributed environment" ;
    fabio:hasPublicationYear "2007"^^xsd:gYear ;
    prism:doi "10.1007/s10506-007-9036-2" ;
    frbr:embodiment :printed , :pdf ;
    frbr:partOf :ai-and-law-15-2 .

:ai-and-law-15-2 a fabio:JournalIssue ;
    prism:issueIdentifier "2" ;
    frbr:embodiment :printed-issue ;
    frbr:partOf :ai-and-law-15 .

:ai-and-law-15 a fabio:JournalVolume ;
    prism:volume "15" ;
    frbr:partOf :ai-and-law .

:ai-and-law a fabio:Journal ;
    dcterms:title "Artificial Intelligence and Law" .

:printed-issue a fabio:Paperback ;
    dcterms:publisher :springer ;
    prism:publicationDate "2007-06"^^xsd:gYearMonth ;
    frbr:part :printed .

:printed a fabio:PrintObject ;
    dcterms:publisher :springer ;
    prism:publicationDate "2007-06"^^xsd:gYearMonth ;
    prism:startingPage "171" ;
    prism:endingPage "186" .

:pdf a fabio:DigitalManifestation ;
    dcterms:publisher :springer ;
    dcterms:format application:pdf ;
    prism:publicationDate "2007-05-31"^^xsd:date .

:casanovas a foaf:Person ;
    foaf:givenName "Pompeu" ;
    foaf:familyName "Casanovas" .

:casellas a foaf:Person ;
    foaf:givenName "Nuria" ;
    foaf:familyName "Casellas" .

:tempich a foaf:Person ;
    foaf:givenName "Christoph" ;
    foaf:familyName "Tempich" .

:vrandecic a foaf:Person ;
    foaf:givenName "Denny" ;
    foaf:familyName "Vrandečić" .

:benjamins a foaf:Person ;
    foaf:givenName "Richard" ;
    foaf:familyName "Benjamins" .

:springer a foaf:Organization ;
    foaf:name "Springer" .

Please cite the source above with the following reference:

Peroni, Silvio (2015): Example of use of FaBiO #1. figshare. http://dx.doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.1512819


Specifying ordered lists of authors

Sometimes, it is important to keep track of the actual order the authors of a paper as they appear in the author list. The usual approach is to use RDF collections for handling it. However, this choice can have several drawbacks, first of all that it is not a fully OWL 2 DL compliant way of modelling ordered items – and this could result in having reasoners running with unexpected behaviour or not running at all. Even if FaBiO does not handle author ordering directly, it is possible to use it in combination with other pure OWL 2 DL compliant ontologies, such as the [Collections Ontology (CO)](http://purl.org/co) – that is fully described in the paper "[The Collections Ontology: creating and handling collections in OWL 2 DL frameworks](http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/SW-130121)" by Ciccarese and Peroni – which was specifically designed for defining orders among items. This ontology allows us to link a ``co:List`` of authors through the ``dcterms:creator`` property.

@prefix : <http://www.sparontologies.net/example/> .
@prefix co: <http://purl.org/co/> .
@prefix fabio: <http://purl.org/spar/fabio/> .
@prefix dcterms: <http://purl.org/dc/terms/> .
@prefix foaf: <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/> .
@prefix xsd: <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .

:opjk-and-diligent a fabio:ResearchPaper ;
    dcterms:creator :author-list .

:author-list a co:List , foaf:Group ;
    co:firstItem :author-item-1 ;
    co:item
        :author-item-1 ,
        :author-item-2 ,
        :author-item-3 ,
        :author-item-4 ,
        :author-item-5 ;
    co:lastItem :author-item-5 ;
    co:size "5"^^xsd:nonNegativeInteger .

:author-item-1 a co:ListItem ;
    co:index "1"^^xsd:positiveInteger ;
    co:itemContent :casanovas ;
    co:nextItem :author-item-2 .

:author-item-2 a co:ListItem ;
    co:index "2"^^xsd:positiveInteger ;
    co:itemContent :casellas ;
    co:nextItem :author-item-3 .

:author-item-3 a co:ListItem ;
    co:index "3"^^xsd:positiveInteger ;
    co:itemContent :tempich ;
    co:nextItem :author-item-4 .

:author-item-4 a co:ListItem ;
    co:index "4"^^xsd:positiveInteger ;
    co:itemContent :vrandecic ;
    co:nextItem :author-item-5 .

:author-item-5 a co:ListItem ;
    co:index "5"^^xsd:positiveInteger ;
    co:itemContent :benjamins .

:casanovas a foaf:Person ;
    foaf:givenName "Pompeu" ;
    foaf:familyName "Casanovas" .

:casellas a foaf:Person ;
    foaf:givenName "Nuria" ;
    foaf:familyName "Casellas" .

:tempich a foaf:Person ;
    foaf:givenName "Christoph" ;
    foaf:familyName "Tempich" .

:vrandecic a foaf:Person ;
    foaf:givenName "Denny" ;
    foaf:familyName "Vrandečić" .

:benjamins a foaf:Person ;
    foaf:givenName "Richard" ;
    foaf:familyName "Benjamins" .

Please cite the source above with the following reference:

Peroni, Silvio (2015): Example of use of FaBiO #2. figshare. http://dx.doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.1512820


Associating keywords, subject terms and disciplines to a paper

One of the most important needs for a publisher is to categorise each bibliographic entity it produces by adding free-text keywords and/or specific terms structured according to recognised classification systems and/or thesauri developed for specific academic disciplines. While through FaBiO the definition of keywords is possible using the [PRISM](http://www.prismstandard.org/resources/mod_prism.html) property ``prism:keyword``, terms from thesauri, structured vocabularies and classification systems are described using [SKOS](http://www.w3.org/TR/skos-reference/). To this end, FaBiO extends some classes and properties of SKOS. First of all any FRBR endeavour can be associated (``fabio:hasSubjectTerm``) with one or more descriptive terms (``fabio:SubjectTerm``, a sub-class of ``skos:Concept``) found in a specific dictionary (``fabio:TermDictionary``, a sub-class of ``skos:ConceptScheme``) that is relevant to (``fabio:hasDiscipline``) particular disciplines (``fabio:SubjectDiscipline``, also a sub-class of ``skos:Concept``) describing a field of knowledge or human activity such as computer science, biology, economics, cookery or swimming. At the same time, the subject disciplines can be grouped by an opportune vocabulary (i.e., ``fabio:DisciplineDictionary``).

@prefix : <http://www.sparontologies.net/example/> .
@prefix dbpedia: <http://dbpedia.org/resource/> .
@prefix fabio: <http://purl.org/spar/fabio/> .
@prefix facet: <http://link.springer.com/facet/> .
@prefix prism: <http://prismstandard.org/namespaces/basic/2.0/> .
@prefix skos: <http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#> .

:opjk-and-diligent a fabio:ResearchPaper ;
    fabio:hasSubjectTerm
        facet:air-and-space-law ,
        facet:computational-linguistics ,
        facet:philosophy-of-law ,
        facet:legal-aspects-of-computing ,
        facet:artificial-intelligence-incl-robotics ;
    prism:keywords
        "legal ontologies" ,
        "methodology" ,
        "ontology modeling" ,
        "professional knowledge" ,
        "rhetorical structure theory" .

<http://link.springer.com/facet> a fabio:TermDictionary ;
    skos:prefLabel "Facet dictionary used in Springer library" ;
    fabio:hasDiscipline
        dbpedia:Computer_science ,
        dbpedia:Law .

facet:air-and-space-law a fabio:SubjectTerm ;
    skos:prefLabel "Air and Space Law" ;
    skos:inScheme <http://link.springer.com/facet> .

facet:computational-linguistics a fabio:SubjectTerm ;
    skos:prefLabel "Computational Linguistics" ;
    skos:inScheme <http://link.springer.com/facet> .

facet:philosophy-of-law a fabio:SubjectTerm ;
    skos:prefLabel "Philosophy of Law" ;
    skos:inScheme <http://link.springer.com/facet> .

facet:legal-aspects-of-computing a fabio:SubjectTerm ;
    skos:prefLabel "Legal Aspects of Computing" ;
    skos:inScheme <http://link.springer.com/facet> .

facet:artificial-intelligence-incl-robotics a fabio:SubjectTerm ;
    skos:prefLabel "Artificial Intelligence (incl. Robotics)" ;
    skos:inScheme <http://link.springer.com/facet> .

Please cite the source above with the following reference:

Peroni, Silvio (2015): Example of use of FaBiO #3. figshare. http://dx.doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.1512821


Describing citation contexts

In a particular sentence of the paper entitled "[Intertextual semantics: A semantics for information design](http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/asi.21134)" there is a citation to the paper "[Towards a semantics for XML markup](http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/585058.585081)" made through a in-text reference pointer to a specific bibliographic reference. [C4O](/ontologies/c4o) enables ontological descriptions of the citation context where an in-text reference pointer appears in the citing document, and allows one to relate that context to relevant textual passages in the cited document.

@prefix : <http://www.sparontologies.net/example/> .
@prefix biro: <http://purl.org/spar/biro/> .
@prefix c4o: <http://purl.org/spar/biro/> .
@prefix dcterms: <http://purl.org/dc/terms/> .
@prefix doco: <http://purl.org/spar/doco/> .
@prefix frbr: <http://purl.org/vocab/frbr/core#> .

<http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/asi.21134>
    frbr:part :in-text-renear02 , :renear02 .

:in-text-renear02 a c4o:InTextReferencePointer ;
    c4o:denotes :renear02 ;
    c4o:hasContext :citation-sentence .

:renear02 a biro:BibliographicReference ;
    dcterms:bibliographicCitation
        "Renear, A., Dubin, D. & Sperberg-McQueen, C.M. (2002).
        Towards a semantics for XML markup. In E. Mudson (Chair),
        Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on Document Engineering,
        (pp. 119-126). New York: ACM Press." ;
    biro:references <http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/585058.585081> .

:citation-sentence a doco:Sentence ;
    c4o:hasContent
        "Renear, Dubin, and Sperberg-McQueen (2002, pp. 121-122)
        proposed a formal semantic approach for structured documents." .

<http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/585058.585081>
    frbr:part :cited-sentence .

:cited-sentence a doco:Sentence ;
    c4o:hasContent
        "Markup semantics are modeled computationally by applying
        knowledge representation technologies to the problem of making
        those structures, relationships, and properties explicit." ;
	c4o:isRelevantTo :citation-sentence .

Please cite the source above with the following reference:

Peroni, Silvio (2015): Example of use of C4O #1. figshare. http://dx.doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.1536253


Keeping track of global citation count

[C4O](/ontologies/c4o) allows one to record the number of citations a cited entity has received globally (property ``c4o:hasGlobalCitationCount``), as determined by a bibliographic information resource (property ``c4o:hasGlobalCountSource``) such as [Google Scholar](http://scholar.google.com), [Scopus](http://www.scopus.com) or [Web of Knowledge](http://apps.isiknowledge.com) on a particular date (property ``c4o:hasGlobalCountDate``). For instance we can write a set of assertions according to C4O that describe how many times the reference - contained in the paper "[Intertextual semantics: A semantics for information design](http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/asi.21134)" and referring to the paper "[Towards a semantics for XML markup](http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/585058.585081)" - is used within the citing article and how much the cited article is globally cited according to Google Scholar.

@prefix : <http://www.sparontologies.net/example/> .
@prefix biro: <http://purl.org/spar/biro/> .
@prefix c4o: <http://purl.org/spar/biro/> .
@prefix dcterms: <http://purl.org/dc/terms/> .
@prefix doco: <http://purl.org/spar/doco/> .
@prefix foaf: <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/> .
@prefix frbr: <http://purl.org/vocab/frbr/core#> .
@prefix xsd: <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .

<http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/asi.21134>
    frbr:part :renear02 .

:renear02 a biro:BibliographicReference ;
    dcterms:bibliographicCitation
        "Renear, A., Dubin, D. & Sperberg-McQueen, C.M. (2002).
        Towards a semantics for XML markup. In E. Mudson (Chair),
        Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on Document Engineering,
        (pp. 119-126). New York: ACM Press." ;
    biro:references <http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/585058.585081> ;
    c4o:hasInTextCitationFrequency "1"^^xsd:nonNegativeInteger .

<http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/585058.585081>
    c4o:hasGlobalCitationFrequency :g-citation-2014-03-17 .

:g-citation-2014-03-17 a c4o:GlobalCitationCount ;
    c4o:hasGlobalCountDate "2014-03-17"^^xsd:date ;
    c4o:hasGlobalCountSource :google-scholar ;
    c4o:hasGlobalCountValue "5"^^xsd:nonNegativeInteger .

:google-scholar a c4o:BibliographicInformationSource ;
    foaf:homepage <http://scholar.google.com> .

Please cite the source above with the following reference:

Peroni, Silvio (2015): Example of use of C4O #2. figshare. http://dx.doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.1536254


Defining citation links and their functions

CiTO allows one to link two papers – or, more generally, two generic resources – where one (i.e., the citing paper) cites another one (i.e., the cited paper) according to a particular citation function (e.g., ``cito:extends``, ``cito:usesMethodIn``, ``cito:supports``). CiTO makes available two different approaches for creating such links. In the direct approach, we can use any of the CiTO properties as predicate of statements for defining citations. In the reified approach, we can define the citation as a proper individual of the class ``cito:Citation``, in order to use it as subject/object of other statements.

@prefix : <http://www.sparontologies.net/example/> .
@prefix cito: <http://purl.org/spar/cito> .

# Direct form for a citation
:paper-a cito:extends :paper-b .

# Reified form for a citation sharing the same
# citation function of the above one
:citation a cito:Citation ;
    cito:hasCitingEntity :paper-a ;
    cito:hasCitationCharacterization cito:extends ;
    cito:hasCitedEntity :paper-b .

Please cite the source above with the following reference:

Peroni, Silvio (2015): Example of use of CiTO #1. figshare. http://dx.doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.1512816


Annotating a citation with an additional text-defined citation function

Despite the extensive list of CiTO properties, there could be situations in which the purpose of making a citation cannot be adequately expressed using these CiTO properties. It is now possible to use the [Open Annotation Data Model](http://www.openannotation.org/spec/core/) to define the reason for, or the nature of, the citation. In the [Open Annotation Data Model Ontology](http://www.w3.org/ns/oa), an annotation is described as a member of the class ``oa:Annotation``, which has a body containing the annotation itself defined by ``oa:hasBody``, and an annotation target (the thing to which the annotation relates) defined by ``oa:hasTarget``. In order to express a more precise justification of a citation, the target of the annotation should be an individual of the class ``cito:Citation``, while the body, i.e. the textual content of the annotation itself, is described using the [W3C Content Vocabulary](http://www.w3.org/TR/Content-in-RDF10/) as an individual of the class ``cnt:ContentAsText``, which the property ``cnt:chars`` relates to the text string actually providing the annotation. In addition, an OA annotation can be further characterized by the motivation for making such annotation, defined by ``oa:motivatedBy``. In this case, the appropriate motivation is ``oa:commenting``, an instance of the class ``oa:Motivation``. The whole example has been extracted from the blog post ["Extending CiTO to enable use of the Open Annotation Data Model to describe citations"](https://semanticpublishing.wordpress.com/2013/07/03/extending-cito-for-open-annotations/)

@prefix : <http://www.sparontologies.net/example/> .
@prefix cito: <http://purl.org/spar/cito> .
@prefix cnt: <http://www.w3.org/2011/content#> .
@prefix oa: <http://www.w3.org/ns/oa#> .

:annotation a oa:Annotation;
    oa:motivatedBy oa:commenting ;
    oa:hasBody :comment ;
    oa:hasTarget :citation .

:comment a cnt:ContentAsText ;
    cnt:chars "I'm citing that paper because it
        initiated this whole new field of research." .

:citation a cito:Citation;
    cito:hasCitingEntity :paper-a ;
    cito:hasCitationCharacterization cito:cites ;
    cito:hasCitedEntity :paper-b .

Please cite the source above with the following reference:

Peroni, Silvio (2015): Example of use of CiTO #2. figshare. http://dx.doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.1512817


Annotating an in-text reference pointer with a citation function

Several citations to the same article could exist in the same text, and such citations could express different functions depending on the author's view. Usually, in a scientific paper, each of these citations is actually described by means of an *in-text reference pointers*, i.e., a textual device (e.g., "[6]") denoting a single bibliographic reference (referring to the cited paper) that is embedded in the text of a document within the context of a particular sentence. One of the SPAR Ontologies, i.e., [C4O](/ontologies/c4o), defines the entities for describing in-text reference pointers (individuals of the class ``c4o:InTextReferencePointer``) and to link them to the related bibliographic references included in the paper. The [Open Annotation Data Model Ontology](http://www.w3.org/ns/oa) can be used to annotate each in-text reference pointer of a paper with the particular citation it conveys. In particular, we can create an annotation (i.e., an individual of the class ``oa:Annotation``) with a body (object property ``oa:hasBody``) containing a specific citation among the citing paper and the cited paper, and with the in-text reference pointer as target (object property ``oa:hasTarget``) of the annotation. In addition, it is also possible to specify (through the object property ``oa:annotatedBy``) the agent who created such annotation – who can be the author of the paper containing the in-text reference pointer, a reader or a software agent.

@prefix : <http://www.sparontologies.net/example/> .
@prefix cito: <http://purl.org/spar/cito/> .
@prefix c4o: <http://purl.org/spar/c4o/> .
@prefix oa: <http://www.w3.org/ns/oa#> .
@prefix per: <http://data.semanticweb.org/person/> .

:annotation a oa:Annotation ;
    oa:hasBody :citation ;
    oa:hasTarget :in-text-ref-pointer ;
    oa:annotatedBy per:silvio-peroni .

:citation a cito:Citation;
    cito:hasCitingEntity :paper-a ;
    cito:hasCitationEvent cito:extends ;
    cito:hasCitedEntity :paper-b .

:in-text-ref-pointer a c4o:InTextReferencePointer ;
    c4o:hasContent "[6]" .

Please cite the source above with the following reference:

Peroni, Silvio (2015): Example of use of CiTO #3. figshare. http://dx.doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.1512818


Specifying roles and contributions of an investigation

Providing a description of how a certain research is described in a published paper, highlighting the various roles of the people who were involved and indicating explicitly their contribution, is crucial in research communications. Here we show how to provide an RDF description of all these information related to a particular article, i.e., "[Adventures in semantic publishing: exemplar semantic enhancement of a research article](http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1000361)", by means of [SCoRO](/ontologies/scoro). While SCoRO is used for describing person's roles and contributions, in the example it is used in combination with [FaBiO](/ontologies/fabio), that provides structured vocabulary terms to characterize scholarly publications, and with [FRAPO](/ontologies/frapo), that provides structured vocabulary terms to describe research administration, research funding, and the projects and investigations that such funding supports.

@prefix : <http://www.sparontologies.net/example/> .
@prefix dcterms: <http://purl.org/dc/terms/> .
@prefix fabio: <http://purl.org/spar/fabio/> .
@prefix foaf: <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/> .
@prefix frapo: <http://purl.org/cerif/frapo/> .
@prefix prism: <http://prismstandard.org/namespaces/basic/2.0/> .
@prefix pro: <http://purl.org/spar/pro/> .
@prefix scoro: <http://purl.org/spar/scoro/> .
@prefix ti: <http://www.ontologydesignpatterns.org/cp/owl/timeinterval.owl#> .
@prefix tvc: <http://www.essepuntato.it/2012/04/tvc/> .
@prefix xsd: <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .

:shotton-et-al-investigation a frapo:Investigation ;
    dcterms:title "Experiments in Semantic Publishing" ;
    frapo:hasOutput
        <http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1000361> .

<http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1000361>
    a fabio:JournalArticle ;
    dcterms:bibliographicCitation
        "Shotton D, Portwin K, Klyne G, Miles A (2009). Adventures
        in semantic publishing: exemplar semantic enhancement of
        a research article. PLoS Computational Biology 5: e1000361." ;
    dcterms:creator :shotton , :portwin , :klyne , :miles ;
    prism:doi "10.1371/journal.pcbi.1000361" .

:shotton a foaf:Person ;
    foaf:name "David Shotton" ;
    scoro:hasORCID "0000-0001-5506-523X" ;
    pro:holdsRoleInTime
        :shotton-author ,
        :shotton-pi ,
        :shotton-contribution .

:shotton-author a pro:RoleInTime ;
    pro:withRole
        pro:author ,
        scoro:senior-author ;
    pro:relatesToDocument
        <http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1000361> .

:shotton-pi a pro:RoleInTime ;
    pro:withRole scoro:principal-investigator ;
    tvc:atTime :pi-time ;
    scoro:relatesToEntity :shotton-et-al-investigation .

:pi-time a ti:timeInterval ;
    ti:hasIntervalStartDate "2008-05-01"^^xsd:date ;
    ti:hasIntervalEndDate "2009-04-17"^^xsd:date .

:shotton-contribution a scoro:ContributionSituation ;
    scoro:withContribution scoro:conceives-project ;
    scoro:withEffort scoro:major-effort ;
    scoro:hasContributionContext :shotton-et-al-investigation .

# ...

Please cite the source above with the following reference:

Peroni, Silvio (2015): Example of use of SCoRO #1. figshare. http://dx.doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.1543378


Defining equal principal authorship roles

The order in which the authors of a paper appear on the author list of the paper it self does not provide any clue about the actual authorship role of such authors, since there is no standard way to understand who is the principal author of the paper, who is a secondary author, and the like. [SCoRO](/ontologies/scoro) makes it easy to assert in a machine-readable manner that two authors on a paper, for example the first and second authors in an author list, have equal principal authorship roles by means of the object property ``scoro:isEqualToRoleInTime``, that allows one to link two ``pro:RoleInTime``situations (in principle involving two different people) as semantically equal from what concern the role they describe with regard to a certain publication. Note that, in a similar manner, two contributions can be declared to be the same, using the property ``scoro:isEqualToContributionSituation`` to equate one ``scoro:ContributionSituation`` with another.

@prefix : <http://www.sparontologies.net/example/> .
@prefix dcterms: <http://purl.org/dc/terms/> .
@prefix fabio: <http://purl.org/spar/fabio/> .
@prefix foaf: <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/> .
@prefix pro: <http://purl.org/spar/pro/> .
@prefix scoro: <http://purl.org/spar/scoro/> .

:silvio-peroni a foaf:Person ;
    foaf:givenName "Silvio" ;
    foaf:familyName "Peroni" ;
    pro:holdsRoleInTime :sp-principal-author .

:sp-principal-author
 a pro:RoleInTime ;
    pro:withRole scoro:principal-author ;
    pro:relatesToDocument
        <http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.websem.2012.08.001> .

:david-shotton a foaf:Person ;
    foaf:givenName "David" ;
    foaf:familyName "Shotton" ;
    pro:holdsRoleInTime :ds-principal-author .

:ds-principal-author
 a pro:RoleInTime ;
    pro:withRole scoro:principal-author ;
    pro:relatesToDocument
        <http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.websem.2012.08.001> ;
    scoro:isEqualToRoleInTime :sp-principal-author .

<http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.websem.2012.08.001>
    a fabio:JournalArticle ;
    dcterms:title
        "FaBiO and CiTO: ontologies for describing
        bibliographic resources and citations" ;
    dcterms:creator :silvio-peroni , :david-shotton .

Please cite the source above with the following reference:

Peroni, Silvio (2015): Example of use of SCoRO #2. figshare. http://dx.doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.1549669


Describing the publishing workflow

From the publisher's perspective, the first step of any workflow leading to a new journal publication starts with a formal submission of a manuscript written by someone, hereinafter the author. This activity expresses, at the same time, interest on the topics of the journal, and may acknowledge, indirectly, the quality of the journal itself – since authors (usually) would like to publish articles in a venue that they consider respectful and qualitatively worth for different reasons (e.g., appropriateness of topic, quality of reviews, journal impact factor, definite timing of the publishing process). Then, in the next step, i.e., the reviewing phase, the person (designated by the publisher) in charge of the quality of submitted material, hereinafter the editor, invites other people (hereinafter the reviewers) to assess the quality of the submitted manuscript. The opinions returned by the reviewers are the fundamental input that the editor uses to decide upon the fate of the manuscript during the next step, i.e., the decision phase. Finally, if the manuscript has been considered worth of publication in the present form, the editor will acknowledge the author of the acceptance of his/her work – and the next steps of the workflow will be in charge of the publisher itself. The whole publishing workflow we have just described can be formally represented by means of [PWO](/ontologies/pwo), with the help of entities defined in other [SPAR Ontologies](/ontologies), i.e., [FaBiO](/ontologies/fabio), [PSO](/ontologies/pso), [C4O](/ontologies/c4o), and [CiTO](/ontologies/cito).

@prefix : <http://www.essepuntato.it/2015/pwo/publishing-domain/> .
@prefix pwo: <http://purl.org/spar/pwo/> .
@prefix time: <http://www.w3.org/2006/time#> .
@prefix fabio: <http://purl.org/spar/fabio/> .
@prefix pso: <http://purl.org/spar/pso/> .
@prefix c4o: <http://purl.org/spar/c4o/> .
@prefix frbr: <http://purl.org/vocab/frbr/core#> .
@prefix dcterms: <http://purl.org/dc/terms/> .
@prefix tisit: <http://www.ontologydesignpatterns.org/cp/owl/timeindexedsituation.owl#> .
@prefix taskex: <http://www.ontologydesignpatterns.org/cp/owl/taskexecution.owl#> .
@prefix ti: <http://www.ontologydesignpatterns.org/cp/owl/timeinterval.owl#> .
@prefix part: <http://www.ontologydesignpatterns.org/cp/owl/participation.owl#> .
@prefix tvc: <http://www.essepuntato.it/2012/04/tvc/> .
@prefix swj: <http://semantic-web-journal.com/sejp/> .
@prefix swj-node: <http://semantic-web-journal.com/sejp/node/> .
@prefix cito: <http://purl.org/spar/cito/> .
@prefix parameter: <http://www.ontologydesignpatterns.org/cp/owl/parameter.owl#> .
@prefix xsd: <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .

# Initial workflow description
:workflow a pwo:Workflow ;
    pwo:hasFirstStep :step-one ;
    pwo:hasStep
        :step-one ,
        :step-two ,
        :step-three .

:step-one a pwo:Step ; # Submission step
    pwo:hasNextStep :step-two .

:step-two a pwo:Step ; # Reviewing step
    pwo:hasNextStep :step-three ;
    parameter:hasParameter :review-time-constraint .

:review-time-constraint a time:DurationDescription ;
    time:weeks "5"^^xsd:decimal .

:step-three a pwo:Step . # Notification step

# Workflow execution
:workflow-execution a pwo:WorkflowExecution ;
    pwo:execute :workflow .

# Executing step 1: Submission
:workflow-execution pwo:involvesAction :submission-action .

:step-one
    taskex:isExecutedIn :submission-action ;
    pwo:needs swj-node:432 ;
    pwo:produces :submitted-status .

# The event in which one of the authors
# submits the manuscript
:submission-action a pwo:Action ;
    dcterms:description "Paolo Ciccarese submits the paper" ;
    tisit:atTime :submission-time ;
    part:hasParticipant
        swj:paolo-ciccarese ,
        swj-node:432 .

:submission-time a ti:TimeInterval ;
    ti:hasIntervalStartDate
        "2013-01-21T10:08:28"^^xsd:dateTime ;
    ti:hasIntervalEndDate
        "2013-01-21T10:08:28"^^xsd:dateTime .

# The new status 'submitted' associated
# to the paper after the submission
:submitted-status a pso:StatusInTime ;
    pso:isStatusHeldBy swj-node:432 ;
    pso:isAcquiredAsConsequenceOf :submission-action ;
    pso:withStatus pso:submitted ;
    tvc:atTime :submitted-time .

:submitted-time a ti:TimeInterval ;
    ti:hasIntervalStartDate
        "2013-01-21T10:08:28"^^xsd:dateTime .

# Executing step 2: Reviewing
:workflow-execution
    pwo:involvesAction
        :reviewing-action ,
        :reviews-notification-sending-action .

:step-two
    taskex:isExecutedIn
        :reviewing-action ,
        :reviews-notification-sending-action ;
    # The review process can start only when
    # a manuscript has been submitted
    pwo:needs swj-node:432 , :submitted-status ;
    pwo:produces
      :review-1 ,
      :review-2 ,
      :under-review-status ,
      :reviewed-status.

:reviewing-action a pwo:Action ;
    dcterms:description "Reviewers review the manuscript" ;
    tisit:atTime :reviewing-time ;
    part:hasParticipant
        swj:csaba-veres ,
        swj:fernando-naufel-do-amaral ,
        swj-node:432 .

:reviewing-time a ti:TimeInterval ;
    ti:hasIntervalStartDate
        "2013-02-26T12:00:07"^^xsd:dateTime ;
    ti:hasIntervalEndDate
        "2013-04-01T05:53:24"^^xsd:dateTime .

:reviews-notification-sending-action a pwo:Action ;
    dcterms:description
        "The reviews are sent to the editor, i.e., Giancarlo Guizzardi" ;
    tisit:atTime :reviews-time ;
    part:hasParticipant
        swj:csaba-veres ,
        swj:fernando-naufel-do-amaral ,
        :review-1 ,
        :review-2 ,
        swj:giancarlo-guizzardi .

:reviews-time a ti:TimeInterval ;
    ti:hasIntervalStartDate
        "2013-03-14T11:16:34"^^xsd:dateTime ;
    ti:hasIntervalEndDate
        "2013-04-01T05:53:24"^^xsd:dateTime .

# Review 1 by Csaba Veres
:review-1 a fabio:Comment ;
    frbr:realizationOf [ a fabio:Review ] ;
    cito:reviews swj-node:432 ;
    frbr:realizer swj:csaba-veres ;
    c4o:hasContent
        "The paper addresses a very practical..." .

# Review 2 by Fernando Naufel do Amaral
:review-2 a fabio:Comment ;
    frbr:realizationOf [ a fabio:Review ] ;
    cito:reviews swj-node:432 ;
    frbr:realizer swj:fernando-naufel-do-amaral ;
    c4o:hasContent
        "The paper presents the Collection Ontology (CO)..." .

# The paper has been assigned to the
# under-review status for a while
:under-review-status a pso:StatusInTime ;
    pso:isStatusHeldBy swj-node:432 ;
    pso:isAcquiredAsConsequenceOf :reviewing-action ;
    pso:isLostAsConsequenceOf
      :reviews-notification-sending-action ;
    pso:withStatus pso:under-review ;
    tvc:atTime :under-review-time .

:under-review-time a ti:TimeInterval ;
    ti:hasIntervalStartDate
        "2013-02-26T12:00:07"^^xsd:dateTime ;
    ti:hasIntervalEndDate
        "2013-04-01T05:53:24"^^xsd:dateTime .

# The paper status has changed in 'reviewed'
# after reviewers' comments
:reviewed-status a pso:StatusInTime ;
    pso:isStatusHeldBy swj-node:432 ;
    pso:isAcquiredAsConsequenceOf
      :reviews-notification-sending-action ;
    pso:withStatus pso:reviewed ;
    tvc:atTime :reviewed-time .

:reviewed-time a ti:TimeInterval ;
    ti:hasIntervalStartDate
        "2013-04-01T05:53:24"^^xsd:dateTime .

# Executing step 3: Notification
:workflow-execution
    pwo:involvesAction
        :decision-action ,
        :notification-action .

:step-three
    taskex:isExecutedIn
        :decision-action ,
        :notification-action ;
    pwo:needs
        swj-node:432 ,
        :review-1 ,
        :review-2 ;
    pwo:produces
        :minor-revision-status ,
        :decision-letter .

:decision-action a pwo:Action ;
    dcterms:description "The editor decides for acceptance or not" ;
    tisit:atTime :decision-time ;
    part:hasParticipant
        swj:giancarlo-guizzardi ,
        :review-1 ,
        :review-2 ,
        swj-node:432 .

:decision-time a ti:TimeInterval ;
    ti:hasIntervalStartDate
        "2013-04-01T05:53:24"^^xsd:dateTime ;
    ti:hasIntervalEndDate
        "2013-06-10T17:47:53"^^xsd:dateTime .

:notification-action a pwo:Action ;
    dcterms:description
        "The editor notifies his decision to the corresponding
        author (i.e., Paolo Ciccarese)." ;
    tisit:atTime :notification-time ;
    part:hasParticipant
        swj:giancarlo-guizzardi ,
        :decision-letter ,
        :review-1 ,
        :review-2 ,
        swj:paolo-ciccarese ,
        swj-node:432 .

:notification-time a ti:TimeInterval ;
    ti:hasIntervalStartDate
        "2013-06-10T17:47:53"^^xsd:dateTime ;
    ti:hasIntervalEndDate
        "2013-06-10T17:47:53"^^xsd:dateTime .

# The decision letter written by the editor
:decision-letter a fabio:Letter , fabio:Email ;
    frbr:realizationOf [ a fabio:Opinion ] ;
    cito:citesAsRelated swj-node:432 ;
    frbr:realizer swj:giancarlo-guizzardi ;
    c4o:hasContent
        "Dear authors, Thank you for your interest in..." .

# The minor revision status assigned to the paper after editor's decision
:minor-revision-status a pso:StatusInTime ;
    pso:isStatusHeldBy swj-node:432 ;
    pso:isAcquiredAsConsequenceOf :decision-action ;
    pso:withStatus swj:minorRevision ;
    tvc:atTime :minor-revision-time .

:minor-revision-time a ti:TimeInterval ;
    ti:hasIntervalStartDate
        "2013-06-10T17:47:53"^^xsd:dateTime .

Please cite the source above with the following reference:

Peroni, Silvio (2015): Example of use of PWO #1. figshare. http://dx.doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.1540728


Describing fundings, investigations and research outputs

The specification of the connection between a research paper, the investigation done and discussed in it and the funds that allowed such investigation are important aspects to describe in the paper itself. Usually, such aspects are introduced in a footnote or, even better, in an appropriate acknowledgement section that describe them in natural language. The use of [FRAPO](/ontologies/frapo) in combination with other SPAR Ontologies such as [FaBiO](/ontologies/fabio) and [SCoRO](/ontologies/scoro) permits the description of the aforementioned aspects in RDF. For instance, the well-known paper published by a young Peter Mika and entitled "[Ontologies are us: a unified model of social networks and semantics](http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.websem.2006.11.002)" has been one of the outcomes of Mika's investigation founded by his Ph.D. scholarship. [FRAPO](/ontologies/frapo) allows one to explicitly describe all of this by means of its several classes and properties.

@prefix : <http://www.sparontologies.net/example/> .
@prefix fabio: <http://purl.org/spar/fabio/> .
@prefix foaf: <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/> .
@prefix frapo: <http://purl.org/cerif/frapo/> .
@prefix person: <http://data.semanticweb.org/person/> .
@prefix org: <http://data.semanticweb.org/organization/> .
@prefix pro: <http://purl.org/spar/pro/> .
@prefix scoro: <http://purl.org/spar/scoro/> .

org:vrije-universiteit-amsterdam a frapo:University ;
    foaf:name "Free University Amsterdam"@en ;
    frapo:awards :phd-scholarship-2004 .

:investigation a frapo:Investigation ;
    frapo:hasOutput
        <http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.websem.2006.11.002> .

:phd-scholarship-2004 a frapo:Scholarship ;
    foaf:name "Ph.D. Scholarship 2004" ;
    frapo:funds :investigation .

person:peter-mika a foaf:Person ;
    foaf:name "Peter Mika" ;
        pro:holdsRoleInTime :affiliation-vua ;
        scoro:makesContribution
            :mika-writes-draft ,
            :mika-revises-manuscript .

:mika-writes-draft a scoro:ContributionSituation ;
    scoro:withContribution scoro:writes-manuscript-draft ;
    scoro:withContributionEffort scoro:solo-effort ;
    scoro:relatesToEntity
        <http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.websem.2006.11.002> .

:mika-revises-manuscript a scoro:ContributionSituation ;
    scoro:withContribution scoro:revises-manuscript ;
    scoro:withContributionEffort scoro:solo-effort ;
    scoro:relatesToEntity
        <http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.websem.2006.11.002> .

:affiliation-vua a pro:RoleInTime ;
    pro:withRole scoro:affiliate ;
    pro:relatesToOrganization org:vrije-universiteit-amsterdam ;
    pro:relatesToDocument
        <http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.websem.2006.11.002> .

Please cite the source above with the following reference:

Peroni, Silvio (2015): Example of use of FRAPO #1. figshare. http://dx.doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.1549721


Using FRBR for describing a bibliographic entity

[FRBR DL](/ontologies/frbr) allows one to describe information related to a bibliographic entity such as the following one: >Pompeu Casanovas, Núria Casellas, Christoph Tempich, Denny Vrandečić, Richard Benjamins (2007). OPJK and DILIGENT: ontology modeling in a distributed environment. Artificial Intelligence and Law, 15 (2): 171-186. June 2007. Springer. DOI: 10.1007/s10506-007-9036-2. Print ISSN 0924-8463. Online ISSN 1572-8382. Published online (PDF) May 31, 2007. From the previous reference we can extract the following information: 1. the document is an academic research article – deducible from the journal in which it is published; 2. Pompeu Casanovas, Núria Casellas, Christoph Tempich, Denny Vrandečić, and Richard Benjamins are the authors of the article; 3. the article was published in 2007; 4. the article is entitled "OPJK and DILIGENT: ontology modeling in a distributed environment"; 5. it was published in the 2nd issue of the 15th volume of Artificial Intelligence and Law; 6. the DOI of the article is "10.1007/s10506-007-9036-2"; 7. the Print ISSN of the journal is "0924-8463"; 8. the Online ISSN of the journal is "1572-8382"; 9. the PDF version of the article was published online on May 31, 2007; 10. the journal issue within which the printed version of the article was published bears the publication date June 2007; 11. the page range of the article within the printed version is "171-186"; 12. the publisher of the journal is Springer. Although it is possible to use FRBR (in combination with [DC Terms](http://dublincore.org/documents/dcmi-terms/)) to give a structured and unambiguous description of all the bibliographic entities, the example makes it clear the severe limitations of FRBR. These are caused by the lack of terms in the [FRBR Core ontology](http://vocab.org/frbr/core) which allow publications to be described in normal everyday language. This issue is addressed by using [FaBiO](/ontologies/fabio) entities, has shown in [one of its available examples](/ontologies/fabio#fabio_1).

@prefix application: <http://purl.org/NET/mediatypes/application/> .
@prefix dcterms: <http://purl.org/dc/terms/> .
@prefix frbr: <http://purl.org/vocab/frbr/core#> .
@prefix xsd: <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .

:opjk-and-diligent a frbr:Work ;
    frbr:creator
        :casanovas ,
        :casellas,
        :tempich,
        :vrandecic,
        :benjamins ;
    dcterms:title
        "OPJK and DILIGENT: ontology modeling in a distributed environment" ;
    frbr:realization :version-of-record .

:version-of-record a frbr:Expression ;
    dcterms:issued "2007"^^xsd:gYear ;
    dcterms:identifier "doi:10.1007/s10506-007-9036-2" ;
    frbr:embodiment :printed , :pdf ;
    frbr:partOf :issue-2-volume-15-ail .

:issue-2-volume-15-ail a frbr:Expression ;
    dcterms:identifier "2" ;
    dcterms:description "Issue" ;
    frbr:embodiment :printed-issue ;
    frbr:partOf :volume-15-ail .

:volume-15-ail a frbr:Expression ;
    dcterms:identifier "15" ;
    dcterms:description "Volume" ;
    frbr:partOf :ail .

:ail a frbr:Expression ;
    dcterms:title "Artificial Intelligence and Law" .

:printed-issue a frbr:Manifestation ;
    frbr:producer :springer ;
    dcterms:issued "06-2007"^^xsd:gYearMonth ;
    frbr:part :printed .

:printed a frbr:Manifestation ;
    frbr:producer :springer ;
    dcterms:issued "06-2007"^^xsd:gYearMonth ;
    dcterms:extent [ a dcterms:SizeOrDuration ;
        dcterms:description "171-186"  ] .

:pdf a frbr:Manifestation ;
    frbr:producer :springer ;
    dcterms:format application:pdf ;
    dcterms:issued "31-05-2007"^^xsd:date .

:casanovas a frbr:Person ;
    dcterms:description "Pompeu Casanovas" .

:casellas a frbr:Person ;
    dcterms:description "Nuria Casellas" .

:tempich a frbr:Person ;
    dcterms:description "Christoph Tempich" .

:vrandecic a frbr:Person ;
    dcterms:description "Denny Vrandečić" .

:benjamins a frbr:Person ;
    dcterms:description "Richard Benjamins" .

:springer a frbr:CorporateBody ;
    dcterms:description "Springer" .

Please cite the source above with the following reference:

Peroni, Silvio (2015): Example of use of FRBR DL #1. figshare. http://dx.doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.1540739


Describing the structure of an article

DoCO can be used for describing several parts of a document such as a journal article (defined through the [FaBiO](/ontologies/fabio) class ``fabio:JournalArticle``) connecting then by means of the object property ``po:contains``. It can be also used in combination with [C4O](/ontologies/c4o) and the [Collections Ontology (CO)](http://purl.org/co) for describing its textual content and the particular order in which the various components appear. In particular, the actual textual content of each component can be specified through the property ``c4o:hasContent``, while the order can be described by using the entities related with the class ``co:List``.

@prefix : <http://www.sparontologies.net/example/> .
@prefix doco: <http://purl.org/spar/doco/> .
@prefix deo: <http://purl.org/spar/deo/> .
@prefix po: <http://www.essepuntato.it/2008/12/pattern#> .
@prefix dcterms: <http://purl.org/dc/terms/> .
@prefix fabio: <http://purl.org/spar/fabio/> .
@prefix co: <http://purl.org/co/> .
@prefix c4o: <http://purl.org/spar/c4o> .

:paper a fabio:JournalArticle ;
    po:contains
        :front-matter ,
        :body-matter ,
        :back-matter ;
    co:firstItem [
        co:itemContent :front-matter ;
        co:nextItem [
            co:itemContent :body-matter ;
            co:nextItem [
                co:itemContent :back-matter ] ] ] .

:body-matter a doco:BodyMatter ;
    po:contains
        :section-introduction ,
        :section-related-work ,
        :section-document-components ,
        :section-adoption ,
        :section-conclusions ;
    co:firstItem [
        co:itemContent :section-introduction ;
        co:nextItem [
            co:itemContent :section-related-work ;
            co:nextItem [
                co:itemContent :section-document-components ;
                co:nextItem [
                    co:itemContent :section-adoption ;
                    co:nextItem [
                        co:itemContent :section-conclusions ] ] ] ] ] .

# Note that, in this example, the composition in paragraphs
# has been defined only for this section.
:section-introduction a doco:Section , deo:Introduction ;
    po:containsAsHeader :section-introduction-title ;
    po:contains
        :paragraph-1 ,
        :paragraph-2 ,
        :paragraph-3 ,
        :paragraph-4 ;
    co:firstItem [
        co:itemContent :section-introduction-title ;
        co:nextItem [
            co:itemContent :paragraph-1 ;
            co:nextItem [
                co:itemContent :paragraph-2 ;
                co:nextItem [
                    co:itemContent :paragraph-3 ;
                    co:nextItem [
                        co:itemContent :paragraph-4 ] ] ] ] ] .

:section-introduction-title a doco:SectionTitle ;
    c4o:hasContent "Introduction" .

# Note that, in this example, the composition in sentences
# has been defined only for this paragraph.
:paragraph-1 a doco:Paragraph ;
    po:contains
        :sentence-1 ,
        :sentence-2 ,
        :sentence-3 ,
        :sentence-4 ,
        :sentence-5 ,
        :sentence-6 ,
        :sentence-7 ;
    co:firstItem [
        co:itemContent :sentence-1 ;
        co:nextItem [
            co:itemContent :sentence-2 ;
            co:nextItem [
                co:itemContent :sentence-3 ;
                co:nextItem [
                    co:itemContent :sentence-4 ;
                    co:nextItem [
                        co:itemContent :sentence-5 ;
                        co:nextItem [
                            co:itemContent :sentence-6 ] ] ] ] ] ] .

:sentence-1 a doco:Sentence ;
    c4o:hasContent "One of the most important criteria for the
        evaluation of a scientific contribution is the coherent
        organisation of the textual narrative that describes it,
        most often published as a scientific article or book." .

# ...

Please cite the source above with the following reference:

Peroni, Silvio (2015): Example of use of DoCO #1. figshare. http://dx.doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.1513725


Sentences containing references to bibliographic items

Among the various parts of a paper, describing references to other objects of the paper, such as bibliographic references, can be of some interest for keeping track, for instance, the number of times a particular publication is actually cited within a paper. DoCO allows one to describe all these parts and to link them together.

@prefix : <http://www.sparontologies.net/example/> .
@prefix doco: <http://purl.org/spar/doco/> .
@prefix deo: <http://purl.org/spar/deo/> .
@prefix po: <http://www.essepuntato.it/2008/12/pattern#> .
@prefix dcterms: <http://purl.org/dc/terms/> .
@prefix c4o: <http://purl.org/spar/c4o> .

:sentence a doco:Sentence ;
    c4o:hasContent "For instance, a recent report by Beck [3]
        explains the requirements for an XML vocabulary of
        scientific journals to be acceptable for inclusion
        in PubMed Central." ;
    po:contains :reference-to-3 .

:reference-to-3 a deo:Reference ;
    c4o:hasContent "[3]" ;
    dcterms:references :bibliographic-reference-3 .

:bibliographic-reference-3 a deo:BibliographicReference ;
    c4o:hasContent "[3]	Beck, J. (2010). Report from the Field:
        PubMed Central, an XML-based Archive of Life Sciences
        Journal Articles. In Proceedings of the International
        Symposium on XML for the Long Haul: Issues in the Long-term
        Preservation of XML.
        OA at http://dx.doi.org/10.4242/BalisageVol6.Beck01." .

Please cite the source above with the following reference:

Peroni, Silvio (2015): Example of use of DoCO #2. figshare. http://dx.doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.1513733


Assigning statuses to a paper

Using PSO, it is possible to describe the statuses of a document and how they change over time. For instance, consider the following description: > The paper entitled "[Annotations with EARMARK for arbitrary, overlapping and out-of order markup](http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1600193.1600232)" was submitted to [DocEng 2009](http://www.documentengineering.org/) on 24 April 2009 at 13:18. At noon on 26 April, when the authors received acknowledgement of safe receipt of the paper from the conference editorial committee, the paper was considered "under review" until 27 May at 17:38. In this example there are at least two different status assigned to the document. A permanent status, i.e., "submitted", that started on 24 April 2009 at 13:18 and that holds forever (unless a withdrawn is requested), and a temporary status, i.e. "under review", that started at noon on 26 April and finished on 27 May at 17:38.

@prefix : <http://www.sparontologies.net/example/> .
@prefix dcterms: <http://purl.org/dc/terms/> .
@prefix part: <http://www.ontologydesignpatterns.org/cp/owl/participation.owl#> .
@prefix pso: <http://purl.org/spar/pso/> .
@prefix ti: <http://www.ontologydesignpatterns.org/cp/owl/timeinterval.owl#> .
@prefix tvc: <http://www.essepuntato.it/2012/04/tvc/> .
@prefix xsd: <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .

<http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1600193.1600232>
    pso:holdsStatusInTime
        :submitted-to-doceng ,
        :under-revision-by-doceng-pc .

:submitted-to-doceng a pso:StatusInTime ;
    pso:withStatus pso:submitted ;
    tvc:atTime :submission-time ;
    pso:isAcquiredAsConsequenceOf :submission-event .

:submission-time a ti:TimeInterval ;
    ti:hasIntervalStartDate
        "2009-04-24T13:18:21Z"^^xsd:dateTime .

:submission-event a part:Event ;
    dcterms:description
        "An author submitted the paper through the
        online DocEng 2009 submission system." .

:under-revision-by-doceng-pc a pso:StatusInTime ;
    pso:withStatus pso:under-review ;
    tvc:atTime :under-review-time ;
    pso:isAcquiredAsConsequenceOf
        :notification-to-reviewers-event ;
    pso:isLostAsConsequenceOf
        :reviewers-sent-their-revision-back-event .

:under-review-time a ti:TimeInterval ;
    ti:hasIntervalStartDate
        "2009-04-26T12:00:00Z"^^xsd:dateTime ;
    ti:hasIntervalEndDate
        "2009-05-27T17:38:01Z"^^xsd:dateTime .

:notification-to-reviewers-event a part:Event ;
    dcterms:description
        "The conference chairs sent the
        paper to reviewers for consideration." .

:reviewers-sent-their-revision-back-event a part:Event ;
    dcterms:description
        "The reviewers completed their reviews
        of the paper." .

Please cite the source above with the following reference:

Peroni, Silvio (2015): Example of use of PSO #1. figshare. http://dx.doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.1536426


Specifying the impact factor of a journal

Numeric bibliometric data are those characterised by a certain integer or float value related to a particular bibliometric measure. [BiDO](/ontologies/bido) allows one to specify these measures – e.g., h-index, author citation count, e-index, and journal impact factor – to bibliographic resources. For instance, in the following example we assign the 2014 Impact Factor to the [Journal of Web Semantics](http://www.journals.elsevier.com/journal-of-web-semantics).

@prefix : <http://www.sparontologies.net/example/> .
@prefix bido: <http://purl.org/spar/bido/> .
@prefix fabio: <http://purl.org/spar/fabio/> .
@prefix foaf: <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/> .
@prefix journal: <http://www.journals.elsevier.com/> .
@prefix time: <http://www.w3.org/2006/time#> .
@prefix tvc: <http://www.essepuntato.it/2012/04/tvc/> .
@prefix xsd: <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .

journal:journal-of-web-semantics a fabio:Journal ;
    bido:holdsBibliometricDataInTime :web-semantics-if-2014 .

:web-semantics-if-2014 a bido:BibliometricDataInTime ;
    tvc:atTime :2015-validity-period ;
    bido:accordingTo :thomson-reuters ;
    bido:withBibliometricData :web-semantics-if-2014-value .

:2015-validity-period a time:Interval ;
    time:hasBeginning :2015-01-01 ;
    time:hasEnd :2015-12-31 .

:web-semantics-if-2014-value a bido:NumericBibliometricData ;
    bido:hasMeasure bido:journal-impact-factor ;
    bido:hasNumericValue "2.464"^^xsd:float .

:thomson-reuters a foaf:Organization ;
    foaf:homepace <http://thomsonreuters.com> .

Please cite the source above with the following reference:

Peroni, Silvio (2015): Example of use of BiDO #1. figshare. http://dx.doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.1559974


Assigning a research career category to a person

The module of [BiDO](/ontologies/bido) for describing [research career chategories](http://purl.org/spar/bido-research-career-category) allows one to assign specific categories describing kinds of research careers to people, as described in the following paper: <p class="cite bg-info">Osborne, F., Peroni, S., Motta, E. (2014). Clustering Citation Distributions for Semantic Categorization and Citation Prediction. In Zhao, J., van Erp, M., Keßler, C., Kauppinen, T., van Ossenbruggen, J., van Hage, W. R. (Eds.), Proceedings of the 4th Workshop on Linked Science (LISC 2014), CEUR Workshop Proceedings 1282: 24–35. Aachen, Germany: CEUR-WS.org. http://ceur-ws.org/Vol-1282/lisc2014_submission_9.pdf</p> For instance, in the example we assign a particular research category (defined mainly by mathematical and geometrical features) to John Doe.

@prefix : <http://www.sparontologies.net/example/> .
@prefix bido: <http://purl.org/spar/bido/> .
@prefix cito: <http://purl.org/spar/cito/> .
@prefix fabio: <http://purl.org/spar/fabio/> .
@prefix foaf: <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/> .
@prefix frbr: <http://purl.org/vocab/frbr/core#> .
@prefix time: <http://www.w3.org/2006/time#> .
@prefix tvc: <http://www.essepuntato.it/2012/04/tvc/> .

:john-doe a foaf:Person ;
    bido:holdsBibliometricDataInTime :5-years-research-career .

:5-years-research-career a bido:BibliometricDataInTime ;
    tvc:atTime :since-july-2014 ;
    bido:accordingTo :research-career-algorithm ;
    bido:withBibliometricData
        :increasing-with-prem-dec-and-low-log-slope-in-243-729-5-y-beg .

:since-july-2014 a time:Interval ;
    time:hasBeginning :2014-07-11 .

:research-career-algorithm a fabio:Algorithm ;
    cito:isDescribedBy <http://ceur-ws.org/Vol-1282/lisc2014_submission_9> ;
    frbr:realization :algorithm-implementation .

:algorithm-implementation a fabio:ComputerProgram .

:increasing-with-prem-dec-and-low-log-slope-in-243-729-5-y-beg
    a bido:ResearchCareerCategory ;
    bido:hasCurve :increasing-curve-with-premature-deceleration ;
    bido:hasSlope :low-logarithmic-slope ;
    bido:hasOrderOfMagnitude bido:243-729 ;
    bido:concernsResearchPeriod bido:5-years-beginning .

:increasing-curve-with-premature-deceleration a bido:Curve ;
    bido:hasTrend bido:increasing ;
    bido:hasAccelerationPoint :premature-deceleration .

:low-logarithmic-slope a bido:Slope ;
    bido:hasStrength bido:low ;
    bido:hasGrowth bido:logarithmic .

Please cite the source above with the following reference:

Peroni, Silvio (2015): Example of use of BiDO #2. figshare. http://dx.doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.1559973


Conference rank and average of reviews per paper

This example shows how to use [BiDO](http://purl.org/spar/bido) for describing numeric and categorial bibliometric data related to a conference, i.e., the '5th International Conference on Automated Deduction'. In particular, we specify average number of reviews per paper and the conference ranking that the conference has. The particular module used for specifying such data is the [Review Measures module](http://purl.org/spar/bido-review-measures).

@prefix : <http://www.sparontologies.net/example/> .
@prefix bido: <http://purl.org/spar/bido/> .
@prefix conf: <http://lod.springer.com/data_v2/conference/> .
@prefix foaf: <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/> .
@prefix onto: <http://lod.springer.com/data_v2/ontology/class/> .
@prefix rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> .
@prefix xsd: <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix time: <http://www.w3.org/2006/time#> .
@prefix tvc: <http://www.essepuntato.it/2012/04/tvc/> .

conf:cade1980 a onto:Conference ;
    rdfs:label
        "5th International Conference on Automated Deduction" ;
    bido:holdsBibliometricDataInTime
        conf:cade1980-avg-num-reviews-per-paper ,
        conf:cade1980-cff-rank .

conf:cade1980-avg-num-reviews-per-paper
    a bido:BibliometricDataInTime ;
    rdfs:label
        "3 reviews per paper on average (according to Springer)" ;
    bido:withBibliometricData
        conf:cade1980-numeric-data-avg-num-reviews-per-paper ;
    bido:accordingTo :springer .

:springer a foaf:Organization ;
    rdfs:label "Springer" ;
    foaf:homepage <http://www.springer.com> .

conf:cade1980-numeric-data-avg-num-reviews-per-paper
    a bido:NumericBibliometricData ;
    rdfs:label "3 reviews per paper on average" ;
    bido:hasNumericValue "3"^^xsd:integer ;
    bido:hasMeasure bido:average-of-reviews-per-paper .

conf:cade1980-cff-rank a bido:BibliometricDataInTime ;
    rdfs:label "B (according to CORE)" ;
    tvc:atTime :2015-validity-period ;
    bido:withBibliometricData bido:core-b ;
    bido:accordingTo :core .

:2015-validity-period a time:Interval ;
    time:hasBeginning :2015-01-01 ;
    time:hasEnd :2015-12-31 .

:core a foaf:Organization ;
    rdfs:label
        "Computing Research and Education Association of Australasia" ;
    foaf:homepage <http://www.core.edu.au> .

Please cite the source above with the following reference:

Peroni, Silvio (2015): Example of use of BiDO #3. figshare. http://dx.doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.1559979


Defining bibliographic references and reference lists

The paper entitled "[Intertextual semantics: A semantics for information design](http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/asi.21134)" contains a list of references, each of them referring to a particular published article. For instance, the content of a particular bibliographic reference contained in that list, and referring to the paper "[Towards a semantics for XML markup](http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/585058.585081)", is: > Renear, A., Dubin, D. & Sperberg-McQueen, C.M. (2002). Towards a semantics for XML markup. In E. Mudson (Chair), Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on Document Engineering, (pp. 119-126). New York: ACM Press. A first necessary step to release bibliographic references like the above one in RDF by using [BiRO](/ontologies/biro) is to describe the list where they are contained (``biro:ReferenceList``), and the particular order in which they are (by means of the [Collections Ontology](http://purl.org/co) class ``co:List`` and its related properties). In addition, we should also make explicit the link between each of the references in the list and the actual cited articles they refer to, by means of the object property ``biro:references``.

@prefix : <http://www.sparontologies.net/example/> .
@prefix biro: <http://purl.org/spar/biro/> .
@prefix co: <http://purl.org/co/> .
@prefix dcterms: <http://purl.org/dc/terms/> .
@prefix frbr: <http://purl.org/vocab/frbr/core#> .

<http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/asi.21134>
    frbr:part :reference-list .

:reference-list a biro:ReferenceList ;
    co:firstItem :reference-1 ;
    co:item
        :reference-1 ,
        :reference-2 ,
        :reference-3 ,
        # ...
        :reference-i ,
        :reference-j ,
        # ...
        :reference-n ;
    co:lastItem
        :reference-n .

:reference-1 a co:ListItem ;
    co:itemContent :barwise83 ;
    co:nextItem :reference-2 .

:reference-2 a co:ListItem ;
    co:itemContent :black37 ;
    co:nextItem :reference-3 .

# ...

:reference-i a co:ListItem ;
    co:itemContent :renear02 ;
    co:nextItem :reference-j .

# ...

:renear02 a biro:BibliographicReference ;
    dcterms:bibliographicCitation
        "Renear, A., Dubin, D. & Sperberg-McQueen,
        C.M. (2002). Towards a semantics for XML markup.
        In E. Mudson (Chair), Proceedings of the ACM
        Symposium on Document Engineering, (pp. 119-126).
        New York: ACM Press." ;
    biro:references <http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/585058.585081> .

Please cite the source above with the following reference:

Peroni, Silvio (2015): Example of use of BiRO #1. figshare. http://dx.doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.1534592


Describing parts of a reference

The source introduced in the [first BiRO example](#biro_1) is not fully expressive as we only assigned an IRI to the reference list and to each of its references, and the semantics of the string representing the reference is still obscure. For instance, there is no explicit statement saying that the strings "Renear, A.", "2002" and "Towards a semantics for XML markup" are, respectively, the name of one of the authors, the year of publication and the title of the article. A way to enable the semantic enhancement of strings, and to solve the above mentioned limitations, is to use literals as subjects of statements and assertions, by promoting them as "first class object" in OWL. The pattern [literal reification](http://www.essepuntato.it/2010/06/literalreification) fulfills this scenario by reifying literals as proper individuals of the class ``literal:Literal``. Individuals of this class express literal values through the functional data property ``literal:hasLiteralValue`` and can be connected to other individuals that share the same literal value by using the property ``literal:hasSameLiteralValueAs``. Moreover, a literal may refer to, and may be referred by, any OWL individual through ``literal:isLiteralOf`` and ``literal:hasLiteral`` respectively. This pattern allows one to describe each string of a bibliographic reference as item of an ordered list of strings, by means of the [Collections Ontology](http://purl.org/co). By means of this pattern and of the OWL 2 capabilities in meta-modelling, it becomes possible to link specific strings in the references as defined with [BiRO](/ontologies/biro) and to enhance them through semantic assertions according to specific vocabularies.

@prefix : <http://www.sparontologies.net/example/> .
@prefix biro: <http://purl.org/spar/biro/> .
@prefix co: <http://purl.org/co/> .
@prefix foaf: <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/> .
@prefix literal: <http://www.essepuntato.it/2010/06/literalreification/> .

:renear02 a biro:BibliographicReference ;
    co:firstItem :author-name-1 ;
    co:item
        :author-name-1 ,
        :author-name-2 ,
        :year-1 ,
        :title-1 ,
        # ...
        :publisher-name-1 ;
    co:lastItem :publisher-name-1 .

:author-name-1 a co:ListItem ;
    co:itemContent :first-author-name ;
    co:nextItem :author-name-2 .

# ...

:year-1 a co:ListItem ;
    co:itemContent :publication-year ;
    co:nextItem :title-1 .

:title-1 a co:ListItem ;
    co:itemContent :paper-title ;
    co:nextItem :editor-name-1 .

# ...

:first-author-name a literal:Literal , foaf:name ;
    literal:hasLiteralValue "Renear, A." ;
    literal:isLiteralOf :renear .

:renear a foaf:Person ;
    foaf:givenName "Allen" ;
    foaf:familyName "Renear" .

Please cite the source above with the following reference:

Peroni, Silvio (2015): Example of use of BiRO #2. figshare. http://dx.doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.1534651


Semantic enhancement of reference parts with EARMARK ranges

Another approach, alternative to the one presented in the [second BiRO example](#biro_2), to deal with the semantic enhancement of bibliographic references is to use [EARMARK](http://www.essepuntato.it/2008/12/earmark) ranges for associating appropriate semantic statements to textual fragments, as illustrated in the following paper: <p class="cite bg-info">Peroni, S., Gangemi, A., & Vitali, F. (2011). Dealing with markup semantics. In Proceedings the 7th International Conference on Semantic Systems (i-Semantics 2011): 111–118. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2063518.2063533</p> For instance, the reference introduced in the [first BiRO example](#biro_1) can be encoded as an EARMARK document. We first need a particular string container called docuverse in EARMARK (corresponding to the class ``earmark:StringDocuverse``). This entity allows one to define the text of the reference. Then, we can define ranges (the class ``earmark:PointerRange``) for each string we want to use in order to describe the bibliographic reference according to [BiRO](/ontologies/biro). Furthermore, using the [LA-EARMARK](http://www.essepuntato.it/2013/06/la-earmark), and extension of EARMARK for expressing markup semantics, it is possible to link EARMARK ranges to their formal meaning and to the particular object referenced by such strings, as described in the following work: <p class="cite bg-info">Barabucci, G., Di Iorio, A., Peroni, S., Poggi, F., & Vitali, F. (2013). Annotations with EARMARK in practice: a fairy tale. In Proceedings of DH-CASE 2013. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2517978.2517990</p> We can say that a certain range (i.e., a string) actually denotes (``la:denotes``) a particular concrete object, i.e., a particular person identified by a certain IRI. Specifically, that range expresses (``la:expresses``) a particular meaning (``la:Meaning``), i.e., the fact that the string (as well as the denoted object) refers to something being an author of that paper.

@prefix : <http://www.sparontologies.net/example/> .
@prefix biro: <http://purl.org/spar/biro/> .
@prefix co: <http://purl.org/co/> .
@prefix earmark: <http://www.essepuntato.it/2008/12/earmark#> .
@prefix foaf: <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/> .
@prefix la: <http://www.ontologydesignpatterns.org/cp/owl/semiotics.owl#> .
@prefix owl: <http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#> .
@prefix pro: <http://purl.org/spar/pro/> .
@prefix xsd: <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .

:renear02-reference a earmark:StringDocuverse ;
    earmark:hasContent
        "Renear, A., Dubin, D. & Sperberg-McQueen,
        C.M. (2002). Towards a semantics for XML markup.
        In E. Mudson (Chair), Proceedings of the ACM
        Symposium on Document Engineering, (pp. 119-126).
        New York: ACM Press." .

:renear02 a biro:BibliographicReference ;
    co:firstItem :author-name-1 ;
    co:item
        :author-name-1 ,
        :author-name-2 ,
        :year-1 ,
        :title-1 ,
        # ...
        :publisher-name-1 ;
    co:lastItem :publisher-name-1 .

:author-name-1 a co:ListItem ;
    co:itemContent :first-author-name ;
    co:nextItem :author-name-2 .

# ...

:year-1 a co:ListItem ;
    co:itemContent :publication-year ;
    co:nextItem :title-1 .

:title-1 a co:ListItem ;
    co:itemContent :paper-title ;
    co:nextItem :editor-name-1 .

# ...

# It identifies the string "Renear, A."
:first-author-name a earmark:PointerRange ;
    earmark:refersTo :renear02-reference ;
    earmark:begins "0"^^xsd:nonNegativeInteger ;
    earmark:ends "9"^^xsd:nonNegativeInteger .

# ...

:first-author-name
    la:denotes :renear ;
    la:expresses
        [
            a owl:Restriction ;
            owl:onProperty pro:holdsRoleInTime ;
            owl:someValuesFrom [
                owl:intersectionOf (
                    [
                        a owl:Restriction ;
                        owl:onProperty pro:withRole ;
                        owl:hasValue pro:author ]
                    [
                        a owl:Restriction ;
                        owl:onProperty pro:refersToDocument ;
                        owl:hasValue :towards-a-semantics ] ) ] ] .

:renear a foaf:Person ;
    foaf:givenName "Allen" ;
    foaf:familyName "Renear" .

Please cite the source above with the following reference:

Peroni, Silvio (2015): Example of use of BiRO #3. figshare. http://dx.doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.1535530


Tagging paper blocks with rhetoric entities

The [Research Articles in Simplified HTML (RASH)](https://rawgit.com/essepuntato/rash/master/documentation/index.html) format is a markup language that restricts the use of HTML elements for writing academic research articles. In particular, RASH authors to use RDFa annotations within any element of the language. By means of RDFa, [DEO](/ontologies/deo) can be used in RASH documents in order characterise the major rhetorical elements of a a research article, such as the introduction part, the evaluation section, the conclusions and so on.

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html
    xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"
    prefix="
        schema: http://schema.org/
        prism: http://prismstandard.org/namespaces/basic/2.0/
        deo: http://purl.org/spar/deo/
        dcterms: http://purl.org/dc/terms/">
    <!-- ... -->
    <body>
        <!-- ... -->
        <div
            id="sec_intro" class="section"
            about="#sec_intro" typeof="deo:Introduction">
            <h1>Introduction</h1>
            <p>
                In the last months of 2014, several posts
                within technical mailing lists of the ...
            </p>
            <!-- ... -->
        </div>
        <div
            id="sec_rationale" class="section"
            about="#sec_rationale" typeof="deo:Motivation deo:Model">
            <h1>A <q>Web-first</q> framework for research articles</h1>
            <p>
                Some works, e.g., Capadisli <i>et al.</i>
                <a
                    id="ref_linked_research" class="ref"
                    about="#ref_linked_research" typeof="deo:Reference"
                    property="dcterms:references" href="#linked-research"></a>,
                suggest not to force any particular HTML ...
            </p>
            <!-- ... -->
        </div>

        <div
            id="sec_tools" class="section"
            about="#sec_tools" typeof="deo:Material">
            <h1>Tools in the Framework</h1>
            <p>
                In this section we introduce all the tools shown...
            </p>
            <!-- ... -->
        </div>

        <div
            id="sec_conclusions" class="section"
            about="#sec_conclusions" typeof="deo:Conclusion">
            <h1>Conclusions</h1>
            <p>
                In this paper we have introduced the <i>RASH Framework</i>,
                i.e., a set of specifications and tools for writing...
                <span
                    id="bloc_future_works"
                    about="#bloc_future_works" typeof="deo:FutureWork">
                    As immediate future developments, we plan to create
                    additional scripts for extracting RDF statements
                    from RASH documents according to SPAR Ontologies...
                </span>
            </p>
        </div>
        <!-- ... -->
    </body>
</html>

Please cite the source above with the following reference:

Peroni, Silvio (2015): Example of use of DEO #1. figshare. http://dx.doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.1540796