Publishing Workflow Ontology (PWO)

URL
http://purl.org/spar/pwo
Documentation
http://www.sparontologies.net/ontologies/pwo/source.html
Source
http://www.sparontologies.net/ontologies/pwo/source.rdf (RDF/XML)
http://www.sparontologies.net/ontologies/pwo/source.ttl (Turtle)
http://www.sparontologies.net/ontologies/pwo/source.json (JSON-LD)
Repository
http://sourceforge.net/p/sempublishing/code/HEAD/tree/PWO/
Reference
Gangemi, A., Peroni, S., Shotton, D., Vitali, F. (2014). A pattern-based ontology for describing publishing workflows. In de Boer, V., Gangemi, A., Janowicz, K., Lawrynowicz, A. (Eds.), Proceedings of the 5th International Workshop on Ontology and Semantic Web Patterns (WOP 2014), CEUR Workshop Proceedings 1302: 2–13. Aachen, Germany: CEUR-WS.org. http://ceur-ws.org/Vol-1302/paper1.pdf (Open Access)

When modelling any workflow, even in the publishing domain, one has to take into account and address some minimal characteristics or requirements: 1. it involves a sequence of processes; 1. each process allows one to initiate and then complete a piece of work during a specifiable time interval; 1. the structure of a workflow is organised in procedural steps; 1. each step describes tasks; 1. each task is performed by organisations or people; 1. each task requires some input information in order to produce an output. The *Publishing Workflow Ontology* (*PWO*) models the aforementioned requirements and enables the description of the logical steps in a workflow, as, e.g., the process of publication of a document. Each step may involve one or more events (or actions) that take place in a particular phase of the workflow (e.g., authors are writing the article, the article is under review, a reviewer suggests to revise the article, the article is in printing, the article has been published, etc.). As shown in the following figure, PWO is based on two main classes ``pwo:Workflow`` and ``pwo:Step``. ``pwo:Workflow`` represents a sequence of connected tasks (i.e., steps, by using the property ``pwo:hasFirstStep`` and ``pwo:hasStep``, which are ordered by means of ``pwo:hasNextStep``). ``pwo:Workflow`` is a subclass of ``plandesc:Plan``. We can use the class ``pwo:WorkflowExecution`` to represent the aggregate of the actions (class ``pwo:Action``) executed in the steps defined in a workflow. We can then abstract from the execution of individual steps, by saying that a certain workflow execution executes a workflow. <img class="img-responsive center-block" src="/static/img/spar/pwo-diagram.png" alt="The diagram of PWO." /> The other main class of PWO is ``pwo:Step``. A step is an atomic unit of a workflow, and subclass of ``taskrole:Task``; it is characterised by (required) temporal parameters (``parameter:hasParameter``) describing the expected duration (time:DurationDescription) of executed actions, and it is associated with one or more (time-indexed) executed actions by using the property ``pwo:involvesAction``. A workflow step usually involves some input information (i.e., ``pwo:needs``), material or energy needed to complete the step, and some output information (i.e., ``pwo:produces``), material or energy produced by that step. In the case of a publishing workflow, a step typically results in the creation of a publication entity, usually by the modification of another pre-existing publication entity, e.g. the creation of an edited paper from a rough draft, or of an HTML representation from an XML document.

Examples of use of PWO

  1. Describing the publishing workflow

Describing the publishing workflow

From the publisher's perspective, the first step of any workflow leading to a new journal publication starts with a formal submission of a manuscript written by someone, hereinafter the author. This activity expresses, at the same time, interest on the topics of the journal, and may acknowledge, indirectly, the quality of the journal itself – since authors (usually) would like to publish articles in a venue that they consider respectful and qualitatively worth for different reasons (e.g., appropriateness of topic, quality of reviews, journal impact factor, definite timing of the publishing process). Then, in the next step, i.e., the reviewing phase, the person (designated by the publisher) in charge of the quality of submitted material, hereinafter the editor, invites other people (hereinafter the reviewers) to assess the quality of the submitted manuscript. The opinions returned by the reviewers are the fundamental input that the editor uses to decide upon the fate of the manuscript during the next step, i.e., the decision phase. Finally, if the manuscript has been considered worth of publication in the present form, the editor will acknowledge the author of the acceptance of his/her work – and the next steps of the workflow will be in charge of the publisher itself. The whole publishing workflow we have just described can be formally represented by means of [PWO](/ontologies/pwo), with the help of entities defined in other [SPAR Ontologies](/ontologies), i.e., [FaBiO](/ontologies/fabio), [PSO](/ontologies/pso), [C4O](/ontologies/c4o), and [CiTO](/ontologies/cito).

@prefix : <http://www.essepuntato.it/2015/pwo/publishing-domain/> .
@prefix pwo: <http://purl.org/spar/pwo/> .
@prefix time: <http://www.w3.org/2006/time#> .
@prefix fabio: <http://purl.org/spar/fabio/> .
@prefix pso: <http://purl.org/spar/pso/> .
@prefix c4o: <http://purl.org/spar/c4o/> .
@prefix frbr: <http://purl.org/vocab/frbr/core#> .
@prefix dcterms: <http://purl.org/dc/terms/> .
@prefix tisit: <http://www.ontologydesignpatterns.org/cp/owl/timeindexedsituation.owl#> .
@prefix taskex: <http://www.ontologydesignpatterns.org/cp/owl/taskexecution.owl#> .
@prefix ti: <http://www.ontologydesignpatterns.org/cp/owl/timeinterval.owl#> .
@prefix part: <http://www.ontologydesignpatterns.org/cp/owl/participation.owl#> .
@prefix tvc: <http://www.essepuntato.it/2012/04/tvc/> .
@prefix swj: <http://semantic-web-journal.com/sejp/> .
@prefix swj-node: <http://semantic-web-journal.com/sejp/node/> .
@prefix cito: <http://purl.org/spar/cito/> .
@prefix parameter: <http://www.ontologydesignpatterns.org/cp/owl/parameter.owl#> .
@prefix xsd: <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .

# Initial workflow description
:workflow a pwo:Workflow ;
    pwo:hasFirstStep :step-one ;
    pwo:hasStep
        :step-one ,
        :step-two ,
        :step-three .

:step-one a pwo:Step ; # Submission step
    pwo:hasNextStep :step-two .

:step-two a pwo:Step ; # Reviewing step
    pwo:hasNextStep :step-three ;
    parameter:hasParameter :review-time-constraint .

:review-time-constraint a time:DurationDescription ;
    time:weeks "5"^^xsd:decimal .

:step-three a pwo:Step . # Notification step

# Workflow execution
:workflow-execution a pwo:WorkflowExecution ;
    pwo:execute :workflow .

# Executing step 1: Submission
:workflow-execution pwo:involvesAction :submission-action .

:step-one
    taskex:isExecutedIn :submission-action ;
    pwo:needs swj-node:432 ;
    pwo:produces :submitted-status .

# The event in which one of the authors
# submits the manuscript
:submission-action a pwo:Action ;
    dcterms:description "Paolo Ciccarese submits the paper" ;
    tisit:atTime :submission-time ;
    part:hasParticipant
        swj:paolo-ciccarese ,
        swj-node:432 .

:submission-time a ti:TimeInterval ;
    ti:hasIntervalStartDate
        "2013-01-21T10:08:28"^^xsd:dateTime ;
    ti:hasIntervalEndDate
        "2013-01-21T10:08:28"^^xsd:dateTime .

# The new status 'submitted' associated
# to the paper after the submission
:submitted-status a pso:StatusInTime ;
    pso:isStatusHeldBy swj-node:432 ;
    pso:isAcquiredAsConsequenceOf :submission-action ;
    pso:withStatus pso:submitted ;
    tvc:atTime :submitted-time .

:submitted-time a ti:TimeInterval ;
    ti:hasIntervalStartDate
        "2013-01-21T10:08:28"^^xsd:dateTime .

# Executing step 2: Reviewing
:workflow-execution
    pwo:involvesAction
        :reviewing-action ,
        :reviews-notification-sending-action .

:step-two
    taskex:isExecutedIn
        :reviewing-action ,
        :reviews-notification-sending-action ;
    # The review process can start only when
    # a manuscript has been submitted
    pwo:needs swj-node:432 , :submitted-status ;
    pwo:produces
      :review-1 ,
      :review-2 ,
      :under-review-status ,
      :reviewed-status.

:reviewing-action a pwo:Action ;
    dcterms:description "Reviewers review the manuscript" ;
    tisit:atTime :reviewing-time ;
    part:hasParticipant
        swj:csaba-veres ,
        swj:fernando-naufel-do-amaral ,
        swj-node:432 .

:reviewing-time a ti:TimeInterval ;
    ti:hasIntervalStartDate
        "2013-02-26T12:00:07"^^xsd:dateTime ;
    ti:hasIntervalEndDate
        "2013-04-01T05:53:24"^^xsd:dateTime .

:reviews-notification-sending-action a pwo:Action ;
    dcterms:description
        "The reviews are sent to the editor, i.e., Giancarlo Guizzardi" ;
    tisit:atTime :reviews-time ;
    part:hasParticipant
        swj:csaba-veres ,
        swj:fernando-naufel-do-amaral ,
        :review-1 ,
        :review-2 ,
        swj:giancarlo-guizzardi .

:reviews-time a ti:TimeInterval ;
    ti:hasIntervalStartDate
        "2013-03-14T11:16:34"^^xsd:dateTime ;
    ti:hasIntervalEndDate
        "2013-04-01T05:53:24"^^xsd:dateTime .

# Review 1 by Csaba Veres
:review-1 a fabio:Comment ;
    frbr:realizationOf [ a fabio:Review ] ;
    cito:reviews swj-node:432 ;
    frbr:realizer swj:csaba-veres ;
    c4o:hasContent
        "The paper addresses a very practical..." .

# Review 2 by Fernando Naufel do Amaral
:review-2 a fabio:Comment ;
    frbr:realizationOf [ a fabio:Review ] ;
    cito:reviews swj-node:432 ;
    frbr:realizer swj:fernando-naufel-do-amaral ;
    c4o:hasContent
        "The paper presents the Collection Ontology (CO)..." .

# The paper has been assigned to the
# under-review status for a while
:under-review-status a pso:StatusInTime ;
    pso:isStatusHeldBy swj-node:432 ;
    pso:isAcquiredAsConsequenceOf :reviewing-action ;
    pso:isLostAsConsequenceOf
      :reviews-notification-sending-action ;
    pso:withStatus pso:under-review ;
    tvc:atTime :under-review-time .

:under-review-time a ti:TimeInterval ;
    ti:hasIntervalStartDate
        "2013-02-26T12:00:07"^^xsd:dateTime ;
    ti:hasIntervalEndDate
        "2013-04-01T05:53:24"^^xsd:dateTime .

# The paper status has changed in 'reviewed'
# after reviewers' comments
:reviewed-status a pso:StatusInTime ;
    pso:isStatusHeldBy swj-node:432 ;
    pso:isAcquiredAsConsequenceOf
      :reviews-notification-sending-action ;
    pso:withStatus pso:reviewed ;
    tvc:atTime :reviewed-time .

:reviewed-time a ti:TimeInterval ;
    ti:hasIntervalStartDate
        "2013-04-01T05:53:24"^^xsd:dateTime .

# Executing step 3: Notification
:workflow-execution
    pwo:involvesAction
        :decision-action ,
        :notification-action .

:step-three
    taskex:isExecutedIn
        :decision-action ,
        :notification-action ;
    pwo:needs
        swj-node:432 ,
        :review-1 ,
        :review-2 ;
    pwo:produces
        :minor-revision-status ,
        :decision-letter .

:decision-action a pwo:Action ;
    dcterms:description "The editor decides for acceptance or not" ;
    tisit:atTime :decision-time ;
    part:hasParticipant
        swj:giancarlo-guizzardi ,
        :review-1 ,
        :review-2 ,
        swj-node:432 .

:decision-time a ti:TimeInterval ;
    ti:hasIntervalStartDate
        "2013-04-01T05:53:24"^^xsd:dateTime ;
    ti:hasIntervalEndDate
        "2013-06-10T17:47:53"^^xsd:dateTime .

:notification-action a pwo:Action ;
    dcterms:description
        "The editor notifies his decision to the corresponding
        author (i.e., Paolo Ciccarese)." ;
    tisit:atTime :notification-time ;
    part:hasParticipant
        swj:giancarlo-guizzardi ,
        :decision-letter ,
        :review-1 ,
        :review-2 ,
        swj:paolo-ciccarese ,
        swj-node:432 .

:notification-time a ti:TimeInterval ;
    ti:hasIntervalStartDate
        "2013-06-10T17:47:53"^^xsd:dateTime ;
    ti:hasIntervalEndDate
        "2013-06-10T17:47:53"^^xsd:dateTime .

# The decision letter written by the editor
:decision-letter a fabio:Letter , fabio:Email ;
    frbr:realizationOf [ a fabio:Opinion ] ;
    cito:citesAsRelated swj-node:432 ;
    frbr:realizer swj:giancarlo-guizzardi ;
    c4o:hasContent
        "Dear authors, Thank you for your interest in..." .

# The minor revision status assigned to the paper after editor's decision
:minor-revision-status a pso:StatusInTime ;
    pso:isStatusHeldBy swj-node:432 ;
    pso:isAcquiredAsConsequenceOf :decision-action ;
    pso:withStatus swj:minorRevision ;
    tvc:atTime :minor-revision-time .

:minor-revision-time a ti:TimeInterval ;
    ti:hasIntervalStartDate
        "2013-06-10T17:47:53"^^xsd:dateTime .

Please cite the source above with the following reference:

Peroni, Silvio (2015): Example of use of PWO #1. figshare. http://dx.doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.1540728