Bibliometric Data Ontology (BiDO)

URL
http://purl.org/spar/bido
Documentation
http://www.sparontologies.net/ontologies/bido/source.html
Source
http://www.sparontologies.net/ontologies/bido/source.rdf (RDF/XML)
http://www.sparontologies.net/ontologies/bido/source.ttl (Turtle)
http://www.sparontologies.net/ontologies/bido/source.json (JSON-LD)
Repository
http://sourceforge.net/p/sempublishing/code/HEAD/tree/BiDO/
Reference
Osborne, F., Peroni, S., Motta, E. (2014). Clustering Citation Distributions for Semantic Categorization and Citation Prediction. In Zhao, J., van Erp, M., Keßler, C., Kauppinen, T., van Ossenbruggen, J., van Hage, W. R. (Eds.), Proceedings of the 4th Workshop on Linked Science (LISC 2014), CEUR Workshop Proceedings 1282: 24–35. Aachen, Germany: CEUR-WS.org. http://ceur-ws.org/Vol-1282/lisc2014_submission_9.pdf (Open Access)

Having a model developed according to a well-known format (such as OWL) for enabling the classification of authors and journals according to bibliometric data is crucial to allow one to query, share and reuse such data in different context, e.g., for providing smart visualisation of bibliometric data for sense-making activities and for enabling automatic reasoning on them. However, bibliometric data are not simple objects, since they are subject to the simultaneous application of different variables. In particular, one should take into account at least: * the temporal association of such data to entities, in order to say that a particular value, e.g., the fact that an article has been cited 42 times, was associated to such article only for a time period; * the particular agent who provided such data (e.g., Google Scholar, Scopus, our algorithm), in order to keep track of the way data evolve in time according to particular sources; * the characterisation of such data in at least two different kinds, i.e., numeric bibliometric data (e.g., the standard bibliometric measures such as h-index, journal impact factor, citation count) and categorial bibliometric data (so as to enable the description of entities, e.g., authors, according to specific descriptive categories). In order to describe such bibliometric data, we have created the *Bibliometric Data Ontology* (*BiDO*), i.e., a modular OWL 2 ontology that allows the description of bibliometric data of people, articles, journals, and other entities described by the SPAR Ontologies in RDF. <img class="img-responsive center-block" src="/static/img/spar/bido-core-diagram.png" alt="A Graffoo diagram introducing the Bibliometric Data Ontology." /> The core module of the ontology allows us to describe any entity and the related bibliometric data (through the property ``bido:holdsBibliometricDataInTime``) at a certain time (i.e., ``tvc:atTime``, a property defined by the imported [TVC Ontology](http://www.essepuntato.it/2012/04/tvc) for specifying temporal instants or intervals) and according to a certain agent (through the property ``bido:accordingTo``, which is a sub-property of ``prov:wasAttributedTo`` and allows one to indicate the agent responsible for such bibliometric data). In addition, BiDO imports [PROV-O](http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-o/) for adding provenance data about the activities related to the creation of such bibliometric data. Two alternative kinds of bibliometric data are specifiable (through the property ``bido:withBibliometricData``) in BiDO: numeric and categorial bibliometric data. Numeric bibliometric data are those characterised by a certain integer or float value related to a particular bibliometric measure, while categorial data are those characterised by the assignment of certain categories to a particular bibliographic resource. Currently, BiDO is composed by three different modules, each extending the core one shown in the previous figure. **[Standard bibliometric measures](http://purl.org/spar/bido-standard-bibliometric-measures).** This module defines a list of possible bibliometric measures that can be used to define bibliometric data of publication-related entities, e.g.: h-index, e-index, journal impact factor, author citation count. **[Research career chategories](http://purl.org/spar/bido-research-career-category).** This module extends the class ``bido:CategorialBibliometricData`` of the core module with specific categories describing the research career of people described in terms of the specific facets (also described in the following figure): * the research period considered, i.e., the interval of research years that the algorithm is taking into consideration (e.g., the first 5/10 years); * the kind of curve of the citations received by an author according to the aforementioned period, which is characterised by a trend (flat/increasing/decreasing) and, in the latter two cases, by an acceleration or deceleration point (none or premature, median, overdue acceleration/deceleration); * the slope of such curve, in terms of strength (low/moderate/high) and kind of growth (linear/polynomial/exponential/logarithmic); * the order of magnitude, which categorises the number of citations received in the considered period according to a uniform model of common-sense estimation, which describes intervals of half-order of magnitude – i.e., “[0,1)”, “[1,3)”, “[3,9)”, “[9,27)”, “[27,81)”, “[81,243)”, “[243,729)”, etc. <img class="img-responsive center-block" src="/static/img/spar/bido-rcc-diagram.png" alt="A Graffoo diagram introducing the Research Career Categories module of the Bibliometric Data Ontology." /> **[Review measures](http://purl.org/spar/bido-review-measures).** The need of describing aspects related to the review process is an important aspect to address by publishers (e.g., Springer) for keeping track of crucial information about conferences and journals. In addition, these data can be crucial for assessing the quality of the venues where researchers publish papers. This module of BiDO describes a list of possible reviews measures tha can be used to define bibliometric data of scholarly venues such as conferences, workshops, and journals.

Examples of use of BiDO

  1. Specifying the impact factor of a journal
  2. Assigning a research career category to a person
  3. Conference rank and average of reviews per paper

Specifying the impact factor of a journal

Numeric bibliometric data are those characterised by a certain integer or float value related to a particular bibliometric measure. [BiDO](/ontologies/bido) allows one to specify these measures – e.g., h-index, author citation count, e-index, and journal impact factor – to bibliographic resources. For instance, in the following example we assign the 2014 Impact Factor to the [Journal of Web Semantics](http://www.journals.elsevier.com/journal-of-web-semantics).

@prefix : <http://www.sparontologies.net/example/> .
@prefix bido: <http://purl.org/spar/bido/> .
@prefix fabio: <http://purl.org/spar/fabio/> .
@prefix foaf: <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/> .
@prefix journal: <http://www.journals.elsevier.com/> .
@prefix time: <http://www.w3.org/2006/time#> .
@prefix tvc: <http://www.essepuntato.it/2012/04/tvc/> .
@prefix xsd: <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .

journal:journal-of-web-semantics a fabio:Journal ;
    bido:holdsBibliometricDataInTime :web-semantics-if-2014 .

:web-semantics-if-2014 a bido:BibliometricDataInTime ;
    tvc:atTime :2015-validity-period ;
    bido:accordingTo :thomson-reuters ;
    bido:withBibliometricData :web-semantics-if-2014-value .

:2015-validity-period a time:Interval ;
    time:hasBeginning :2015-01-01 ;
    time:hasEnd :2015-12-31 .

:web-semantics-if-2014-value a bido:NumericBibliometricData ;
    bido:hasMeasure bido:journal-impact-factor ;
    bido:hasNumericValue "2.464"^^xsd:float .

:thomson-reuters a foaf:Organization ;
    foaf:homepace <http://thomsonreuters.com> .

Please cite the source above with the following reference:

Peroni, Silvio (2015): Example of use of BiDO #1. figshare. http://dx.doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.1559974


Assigning a research career category to a person

The module of [BiDO](/ontologies/bido) for describing [research career chategories](http://purl.org/spar/bido-research-career-category) allows one to assign specific categories describing kinds of research careers to people, as described in the following paper: <p class="cite bg-info">Osborne, F., Peroni, S., Motta, E. (2014). Clustering Citation Distributions for Semantic Categorization and Citation Prediction. In Zhao, J., van Erp, M., Keßler, C., Kauppinen, T., van Ossenbruggen, J., van Hage, W. R. (Eds.), Proceedings of the 4th Workshop on Linked Science (LISC 2014), CEUR Workshop Proceedings 1282: 24–35. Aachen, Germany: CEUR-WS.org. http://ceur-ws.org/Vol-1282/lisc2014_submission_9.pdf</p> For instance, in the example we assign a particular research category (defined mainly by mathematical and geometrical features) to John Doe.

@prefix : <http://www.sparontologies.net/example/> .
@prefix bido: <http://purl.org/spar/bido/> .
@prefix cito: <http://purl.org/spar/cito/> .
@prefix fabio: <http://purl.org/spar/fabio/> .
@prefix foaf: <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/> .
@prefix frbr: <http://purl.org/vocab/frbr/core#> .
@prefix time: <http://www.w3.org/2006/time#> .
@prefix tvc: <http://www.essepuntato.it/2012/04/tvc/> .

:john-doe a foaf:Person ;
    bido:holdsBibliometricDataInTime :5-years-research-career .

:5-years-research-career a bido:BibliometricDataInTime ;
    tvc:atTime :since-july-2014 ;
    bido:accordingTo :research-career-algorithm ;
    bido:withBibliometricData
        :increasing-with-prem-dec-and-low-log-slope-in-243-729-5-y-beg .

:since-july-2014 a time:Interval ;
    time:hasBeginning :2014-07-11 .

:research-career-algorithm a fabio:Algorithm ;
    cito:isDescribedBy <http://ceur-ws.org/Vol-1282/lisc2014_submission_9> ;
    frbr:realization :algorithm-implementation .

:algorithm-implementation a fabio:ComputerProgram .

:increasing-with-prem-dec-and-low-log-slope-in-243-729-5-y-beg
    a bido:ResearchCareerCategory ;
    bido:hasCurve :increasing-curve-with-premature-deceleration ;
    bido:hasSlope :low-logarithmic-slope ;
    bido:hasOrderOfMagnitude bido:243-729 ;
    bido:concernsResearchPeriod bido:5-years-beginning .

:increasing-curve-with-premature-deceleration a bido:Curve ;
    bido:hasTrend bido:increasing ;
    bido:hasAccelerationPoint :premature-deceleration .

:low-logarithmic-slope a bido:Slope ;
    bido:hasStrength bido:low ;
    bido:hasGrowth bido:logarithmic .

Please cite the source above with the following reference:

Peroni, Silvio (2015): Example of use of BiDO #2. figshare. http://dx.doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.1559973


Conference rank and average of reviews per paper

This example shows how to use [BiDO](http://purl.org/spar/bido) for describing numeric and categorial bibliometric data related to a conference, i.e., the '5th International Conference on Automated Deduction'. In particular, we specify average number of reviews per paper and the conference ranking that the conference has. The particular module used for specifying such data is the [Review Measures module](http://purl.org/spar/bido-review-measures).

@prefix : <http://www.sparontologies.net/example/> .
@prefix bido: <http://purl.org/spar/bido/> .
@prefix conf: <http://lod.springer.com/data_v2/conference/> .
@prefix foaf: <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/> .
@prefix onto: <http://lod.springer.com/data_v2/ontology/class/> .
@prefix rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> .
@prefix xsd: <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix time: <http://www.w3.org/2006/time#> .
@prefix tvc: <http://www.essepuntato.it/2012/04/tvc/> .

conf:cade1980 a onto:Conference ;
    rdfs:label
        "5th International Conference on Automated Deduction" ;
    bido:holdsBibliometricDataInTime
        conf:cade1980-avg-num-reviews-per-paper ,
        conf:cade1980-cff-rank .

conf:cade1980-avg-num-reviews-per-paper
    a bido:BibliometricDataInTime ;
    rdfs:label
        "3 reviews per paper on average (according to Springer)" ;
    bido:withBibliometricData
        conf:cade1980-numeric-data-avg-num-reviews-per-paper ;
    bido:accordingTo :springer .

:springer a foaf:Organization ;
    rdfs:label "Springer" ;
    foaf:homepage <http://www.springer.com> .

conf:cade1980-numeric-data-avg-num-reviews-per-paper
    a bido:NumericBibliometricData ;
    rdfs:label "3 reviews per paper on average" ;
    bido:hasNumericValue "3"^^xsd:integer ;
    bido:hasMeasure bido:average-of-reviews-per-paper .

conf:cade1980-cff-rank a bido:BibliometricDataInTime ;
    rdfs:label "B (according to CORE)" ;
    tvc:atTime :2015-validity-period ;
    bido:withBibliometricData bido:core-b ;
    bido:accordingTo :core .

:2015-validity-period a time:Interval ;
    time:hasBeginning :2015-01-01 ;
    time:hasEnd :2015-12-31 .

:core a foaf:Organization ;
    rdfs:label
        "Computing Research and Education Association of Australasia" ;
    foaf:homepage <http://www.core.edu.au> .

Please cite the source above with the following reference:

Peroni, Silvio (2015): Example of use of BiDO #3. figshare. http://dx.doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.1559979