SCoRO, the Scholarly Contributions and Roles Ontology

IRI:
http://purl.org/spar/scoro/
Date:
04/09/2017
Current version:
1.9.1
Previous version:
https://svn.code.sf.net/p/sempublishing/code/SCoRO/2016-01-19-SCoRO-1_9.owl (visualise it with LODE)
Authors:
David Shotton
Silvio Peroni
Imported Ontologies:
http://purl.org/spar/pro (visualise it with LODE)

Abstract

SCoRO is written in OWL 2 DL, and imports FOAF, the Friend of a Friend Ontology (http://xmlns.com/foaf/spec/) and PRO the Publishing Roles Ontology (http://purl.org/spar/pro/). This ontology is available at http://purl.org/spar/scoro/, and uses the namespace prefix 'scoro'. It is designed to be used in conjunction with FRAPO, the Funding, Research Administration and Projects Ontology (http://purl.org/spar/frapo/), and with FaBiO, the FRBR-aligned Bibliographic Ontology (http://purl.org/spar/fabio/). A Web-based scholarly contributions report form based on this ontology, for use in creating metadata to describe authorship roles and scholarly contributions to journal articles and their underlying research, is available from http://purl.org/spar/scoro/**** (to be created). Alternatively, an Excel Scholarly Contributions Report Form based on this ontology, created using RightField (http://www.sysmo-db.org/rightfield) also for use in creating metadata to describe authorship roles and scholarly contributions to journal articles and their underlying research, is available from http://purl.org/spar/scoro/SCoRF.xls.

Table of Content

  1. Introduction
  2. Classes
  3. Object Properties
  4. Data Properties
  5. Named Individuals
  6. Annotation Properties
  7. General Axioms
  8. Namespace Declarations

Introduction

SCoRO, the Scholarly Contributions and Roles Ontology, is an ontology for use by authors and publishers for describing the contributions that may be made and the roles that may be held by a person with respect to a journal article or other publication, and by research administrators for describing contributions and roles with respect to other aspects of scholarly research. In this ontology, the object properties (e.g. scoro:makesContribution) and the individuals within classes (e.g. scoro:conducts-experiments) are expressed in the present tense, as is conventional for ontologies, but should be taken as potentially referring to past, present or future roles and contributions. Since roles have contexts and times that are important to take into account (for example, a person can be author of one paper and reviewer of another, while another person will be editor of a journal only for a defined period, not for ever), the SCORO ontology permit these contexts to be specified, using an ontological design pattern called the time-indexed value in context (TVC) (http://www.essepuntato.it/2012/04/tvc/) which is part of the PRO ontology (http://purl.org/spar/pro/) imported by SCORO. This ontology design pattern permits one to construct the following RDF statements: foaf:Agent pro:holdsRoleInTime [ a pro:RoleInTime pro:withRole pro:editor ] . Thus the domain of pro:withRole is not foaf:Agent, but rather an anonymous member of the class pro:RoleInTime, which itself is the range of the property pro:holdsRoleInTime, for which the domain is foaf:Agent. The range of pro:withRole is the class pro:Role, and its sub-classes pro:PublishingRole, scoro:InvestigationalRole, scoro:OrganizationalRole, etc., whose members permit specific roles to be specified. This single step of indirection permits other contextual and temporal attributes (not shown here) to be specified for this member of the class pro:RoleInTime, putting that role into context. Exemplar usage: fabio:Dataset dcterms:contributor [ rdf:type foaf:Organization ; foaf:name "Met Office" ; foaf:homepage <http://www.metoffice.gov.uk/> ; pro:holdsRoleInTime [ a pro:RoleInTime pro:withRole scoro:data-creator ] ] . Exactly the same use of TVC and of individuals within the class scoro:Contribution and its sub-classes is used for scoro:withContribution, enabling contributions to be time-limited and given contexts.

Classes

authorship contributionc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/AuthorshipContribution

Defines the type or nature of a contribution made with respect to the authorship of a publication such as a journal article. Individual members of this class are used to specify particular authorship contributions.
has super-classes
contributionc
has members
approves final manuscriptni, prepares illustrationsni, prepares supplementary informationni, publishes datani, revises manuscriptni, writes manuscript draftni
is disjoint with
experimental contributionc, intellectual contributionc, organizational contributionc

authorship rolec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/AuthorshipRole

A role that a person might hold as an author of a publication or the creator of a work. Individual members of this class are used to specify particular roles.
has super-classes
rolec
has members
article guarantorni, authorni, consortium authorni, corresponding authorni, illustratorni, photographerni, principal authorni, senior authorni
is disjoint with
data rolec, financial rolec, investigation rolec, organizational rolec, project rolec

computational agentc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/ComputationalAgent

A computer system or software program whose action has an effect on external events, for example a laboratory robot that undertakes your experiments, or the financial control system that controls an institution's payrole, or that, following programmed business rules, prevents the principal investigator from placing an order for research equipment because there is insufficient money left in the project budget.
has super-classes
agentc

contributionc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/Contribution

Defines the type or nature of a contribution made by an agent. Individual members of this class or its sub-classes are used to specify particular contributions.
has super-classes
thingc
has sub-classes
authorship contributionc, experimental contributionc, intellectual contributionc, organizational contributionc
is in domain of
is contribution inop
is in range of
with contributionop
is disjoint with
contribution effortc

contribution effortc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/ContributionEffort

Defines the effort expended in making a contribution.
has super-classes
thingc
is in range of
with contribution effortop
has members
contributed all the effortni, contributed major effortni, contributed minor effortni
is disjoint with
contributionc

contribution situationc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/ContributionSituation

The situation an agent has of making a contribution to realizing a goal or completing a task relating to a scholarly activity or entity such as journal article. The type or nature of the contribution is defined by the object of the object property scoro:withContribution, which is an individual in the class scoro:Contribution or one of its sub-classes. The entity to which the contribution relates is specified using the object property scoro:relatesToEntity or one of its sub-properties, and the effort expended in making that contribution is specified using the object property scoro:withContributionEffort.
has super-classes
value in timec
with contributionop some contributionc
is in domain of
has contribution contextop, is equal to contribution situationop, is made byop, with contributionop, with contribution effortop
is in range of
is contribution inop, is equal to contribution situationop, is related to contribution situationop, makes contributionop
A contribution situation describes always: - a particular contribution C - a particular agent A making contribution C - a particular time interval T in which A makes C (optional) - a particular contribution effort E - one or more entities (e.g. an investigation or data) that defines a context for C contributed by A. (At least one contextual entity should be specified for a particular contribution).

data rolec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/DataRole

A role that an agent might hold with respect to data. Individual members of this class are used to specify particular roles.
has super-classes
rolec
has members
access providerni, curatorni, data creatorni, data curatorni, data managerni, data publisherni, data userni, embargo controllerni, repository managerni, web-masterni
is disjoint with
authorship rolec, financial rolec, investigation rolec, organizational rolec, project rolec

educational rolec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/EducationalRole

A role that an agent might hold with respect to an educational organization or activity. Individual members of this class are used to specify particular educational roles.
has super-classes
rolec
has members
doctoral studentni, faculty memberni, master studentni, postgraduate studentni, supervisorni, undergraduate studentni

experimental contributionc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/ExperimentalContribution

Defines the type or nature of a practical or experimental contribution made to the research. Individual members of this class are used to specify particular contributions.
has super-classes
contributionc
has members
builds and/or maintains instrumentsni, collects datani, creates novel organisms or cellsni, creates novel reagentsni, creates softwareni, develops methodologyni, maintains IT infrastructureni, maintains organisms or cell culturesni, maintains research facilityni, obtains and/or prepared specimensni, performs experimentsni, processs datani, provided serviceni, provides existing datani, provides patientsni, provides reagents, specimens or materialsni, provides softwareni, provides technical supportni, provides tools, equipment or facilitiesni
is disjoint with
authorship contributionc, intellectual contributionc, organizational contributionc

financial rolec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/FinancialRole

A role that an agent might hold with respect to academic and project finance. Individual members of this class are used to specify particular roles.
has super-classes
rolec
has members
accountantni, auditorni, claimantni, contractorni, financial controllerni, funderni, funding recipientni, ownerni, purchaserni, sponsorni, sub-contractorni, supplierni
is disjoint with
authorship rolec, data rolec, investigation rolec, organizational rolec, project rolec

intellectual contributionc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/IntellectualContribution

Defines the type or nature of an intellectual contribution made to the research described in a journal article. Individual members of this class are used to specify particular contributions.
has super-classes
contributionc
has members
analyses datani, conceives projectni, designs experimentsni, formulates research questionsni, interprets resultsni, leads investigationni, provides adviceni, undertakes modellingni
is disjoint with
authorship contributionc, experimental contributionc, organizational contributionc

investigation rolec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/InvestigationRole

A role that an agent might hold with respect to an investigation. Individual members of this class are used to specify particular roles.
has super-classes
rolec
has members
chief scientistni, co-investigatorni, collaboratorni, computer programmerni, consultantni, inventorni, postdoctoral researcherni, principal investigatorni, project studentni, research assistantni, research studentni, researcherni, scholarni, service engineerni, technicianni
is disjoint with
authorship rolec, data rolec, financial rolec, organizational rolec, project rolec

organizational contributionc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/OrganizationalContribution

Defines the type or nature of an organizational or administrative contribution. Individual members of this class are used to specify particular contributions.
has super-classes
contributionc
has members
Supervises, mentors or trains colleaguesni, controls project financesni, ensures regulatory complianceni, manages projectni, provides administrative supportni, secures fundingni
is disjoint with
authorship contributionc, experimental contributionc, intellectual contributionc

organizational rolec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/OrganizationalRole

A role that an agent might hold with respect to an organization and its administration, particularly within an academic context. Individual members of this class are used to specify particular roles.
has super-classes
rolec
has members
CEOni, CTOni, administratorni, affiliateni, agentni, college fellowni, college headni, contact personni, departmental administratorni, directorni, employeeni, employerni, head of departmentni, host institutionni, managerni, memberni, non-academic staff memberni, organizerni, participantni, partnerni, patent holderni, possessorni, programme managerni, registrarni, registration agencyni, registration authorityni, rights holderni, spokespersonni, stakeholderni, successorni, vice-chancellorni
is disjoint with
authorship rolec, data rolec, financial rolec, investigation rolec, project rolec

personc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/Person

is in domain of
has ORCIDdp, has personal identifierdp

project rolec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/ProjectRole

A role that an agent might hold with respect to a project. Individual members of this class are used to specify particular roles.
has super-classes
rolec
has members
co-applicantni, lead applicantni, project leaderni, project managerni, project memberni, workpackage leaderni
is disjoint with
authorship rolec, data rolec, financial rolec, investigation rolec, organizational rolec

Object Properties

has contribution contextop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/hasContributionContext

A property relating a contribution situation to an entity representing the context for that situation.
has super-properties
within contextop
has domain
contribution situationc
is inverse of
is related to contribution situationop

is contribution inop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/isContributionIn

The property relating the definition of a specific contribution to the contribution situation of an agent making that contribution.
has super-properties
has time indexed settingop
has domain
contributionc
has range
contribution situationc
is inverse of
with contributionop

is equal to contribution situationop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/isEqualToContributionSituation

This property allows the link of two contribution situations that are equals for particular aspects (i.e. for type of contribution, contribution effort and context).

has characteristics: symmetric, transitive

has domain
contribution situationc
has range
contribution situationc

is equal to role in timeop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/isEqualToRoleInTime

This property allows the link of two roles in time as being equal, and is particularly useful for specifying that two principal authorship roles are equal.
has domain
role in timec
has range
role in timec

is made byop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/isMadeBy

A property relating a contribution situation that an agent makes, to that agent.
has super-properties
for entityop
has domain
contribution situationc
has range
agentc
is inverse of
makes contributionop

is related to contribution situationop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/isRelatedToContributionSituation

A property relating an entity to the contribution situation for which that entity provides the context.
has super-properties
has time indexed settingop
has range
contribution situationc
is inverse of
has contribution contextop

makes contributionop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/makesContribution

An object property linking an agent to a contribution. This is done via the indirection: foaf:Agent scoro:makesContribution [ a scoro:ContributionSituation ; scoro:withContribution scoro:Contribution ; scoro:withEffort scoro:ContributionEffort ] . The ontology permits one to specify the time period over which a contribution is made, and the other contextual entities to which that agent's contribution relates.
has super-properties
has valueop
has domain
agentc
has range
contribution situationc
is inverse of
is made byop

with contributionop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/withContribution

An object property connecting an agent's contribution situation to a definition of the contribution made by this agent, specified as an instance of the class scoro:Contribution or of one of its sub-classes.

has characteristics: functional

has super-properties
with valueop
has domain
contribution situationc
has range
contributionc
is inverse of
is contribution inop

with contribution effortop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/withEffort

An object property connecting an agent's contribution with respect to a particular entity to the amount of effort exerted by this agent in making that contribution, defined by individuals of the class scoro:ContributionEffort.
has super-properties
for entityop
has domain
contribution situationc
has range
contribution effortc

Data Properties

has ORCIDdp back to ToC or Data Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/hasORCID

A data property relating an individual to his/her Open Researcher and Contributor ID (ORCID), an alphanumeric identifier for individual scholars described at http://about.orcid.org/.
has super-properties
has personal identifierdp
has domain
personc
owl:equivalentProperty <http://purl.org/spar/frapo/hasORCID> .

has personal identifierdp back to ToC or Data Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/hasPersonalIdentifier

A data property specifying a unique and unambiguous identifier for an individual person within a given context, specified by the object property scoro:usesPersonalIdentifierScheme and an individual member of the class scoro:PersonalIdentifierScheme.
has sub-properties
has ORCIDdp
has domain
personc
owl:equivalentProperty <http://purl.org/spar/datacite/hasPersonalIdentifier> .

percentage full-time equivalentdp back to ToC or Data Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/percentageFTE

A data property permitting specification of the proportion of a person's full time activity that is dedicated to a particular role (e.g. for part-time employment, 50% FTE).
has domain
role in timec

with job titledp back to ToC or Data Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/withJobTitle

A data property connecting an agent's role in time to a job title that characterizes that role. This data property complements the definition of that role in time specified by scoro:Role. For example, for the scoro:OrganizationalRole 'Head of Department', the specific Job Title might be 'Linacre Professor of Zoology' or 'Regius Professor of Moral Philosophy'.
has domain
role in timec

Named Individuals

access providerni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/access-provider

The role of an agent who provides access to a resource, for example an online data repository.
belongs to
data rolec

accountantni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/accountant

The role held by a person whose job is to manage financial accounts, for example the accounts of an organization, or of a particular funded project or activity of that organization.
belongs to
financial rolec

administratorni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/administrator

The role held by an agent responsible for the day-to-day management and running of an organization or activity.
belongs to
organizational rolec

affiliateni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/affiliate

The role an agent has of being affiliated to some organization or institution in a context of some entity or activity, for example a document, a project or an internship.
belongs to
organizational rolec
The affiliation of a person to an organization or institution can be specified by using the property pro:relatesToEntity, as shown in the following example: foaf:Person scoro:holdsOrganizationalRole [ pro:withRole pro:affiliate ; pro:relatesToEntity _:aff ] . _:aff a foaf:Organization ; vcard:extended-address 'Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, United Kingdom' .

agentni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/agent

An agent that acts on behalf of another agent.
belongs to
organizational rolec

analyses datani back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/analyses-data

The contribution of data analysis. This might include statistical analysis, bioinformatics analysis, or image analysis.
belongs to
intellectual contributionc

approves final manuscriptni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/approves-final-manuscript

The contribution of approving the final version of the manuscript, prior to submission for publication.
belongs to
authorship contributionc

article guarantorni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/article-guarantor

The role of a person who takes responsibility for the integrity of the work as a whole, from the inception of the research investigation to the published research article.
belongs to
authorship rolec

auditorni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/auditor

The role held by a person who conducts a formal audit of financial accounts.
belongs to
financial rolec

authorni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/pro/author

belongs to
authorship rolec

builds and/or maintains instrumentsni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/builds-and-or-maintains-instruments

The contribution of building instruments, equipment or scientific apparatus and/or maintaining the same in a workable condition for use in experiments.
belongs to
experimental contributionc

CEOni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/chief-executive-officer

The role held by a person who is the chief executive officer of an organization, responsible for directing and managing the business of that organization.
belongs to
organizational rolec

chief scientistni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/chief-scientist

A senior scientist who takes a leadership role in an organization or group.
belongs to
investigation rolec

claimantni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/claimant

The role held by a person making a financial claim, for example for refund of travel expenses from a project grant.
belongs to
financial rolec

co-applicantni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/co-applicant

The role a person has of being a co-applicant on the grant application to obtain funding to fund an endeavour such as a research project.
belongs to
project rolec

co-investigatorni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/co-investigator

The role a person has of being a co-investigator for a research investigation.
belongs to
investigation rolec

collaboratorni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/collaborator

The role a person, typically from another research group or institution, who collaborates with the team undertaking a research investigation.
belongs to
investigation rolec

collects datani back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/collects-data

The contribution of making experimental observations and collecting data, for example using a telescope, a microscope or an analytical instrument.
belongs to
experimental contributionc

college fellowni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/college-fellow

The role held by an academic as a senior member of a college.
belongs to
organizational rolec

college headni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/college-head

The role held by a senior academic who heads a college and acts as its CEO. Among the many alternative titles give to this role, the most common are President or Master of the college.
belongs to
organizational rolec

computer programmerni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/computer-programmer

The role a person has of being someone who develops computer software.
belongs to
investigation rolec

conceives projectni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/conceives-project

The contribution of conceiving the research project in the first place. Note that an individual other than the lead applicant and the co-applicants on a grant application may make considerable contributions to conceiving a research project, but may be prevented from being a formal applicant by reason of affiliation or status (e.g. as a non-academic partner, or a research student).
belongs to
intellectual contributionc

consortium authorni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/consortium-author

The authorship role of an organisation or consortium that has contributed collectively to the work described in the publication and is named in the list of authors, e.g. 'Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium' or 'Malaria Genomic Epidemiology Network'. (The members of such a group should be separately listed elsewhere in the document).
belongs to
authorship rolec

consultantni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/consultant

The role a person has of being a consultant who is providing expertise or services.
belongs to
investigation rolec

contact personni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/contact-person

The role of a person who serves as the primary contact and information provider for third parties wishing to find out more about an organization or an activity.
belongs to
organizational rolec

contractorni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/contractor

The role held by an agent who enters into a contract to undertake specified work or to supply specified services in return for payment.
belongs to
financial rolec

contributed all the effortni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/solo-effort

The contributor was the only person who provided effort in achieving this contribution, which was entirely due to this contributor.
belongs to
contribution effortc

contributed major effortni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/major-effort

The contributor provided a major effort towards achieving this contribution. (It would be unusual for more than three contributors to be described as providing major effort towards achieving any particular contribution).
belongs to
contribution effortc

contributed minor effortni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/minor-effort

The contributor provided a minor effort towards achieving this contribution.
belongs to
contribution effortc

controls project financesni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/controls-project-finances

The contribution of controlling the financial aspects of the research project, including authorizing expenditure, creating and managing budgets, and submitting financial reports to the funding agency.
belongs to
organizational contributionc

corresponding authorni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/corresponding-author

The role an author has of being the corresponding author of the document, with whom editors and readers should correspond concerning it.
belongs to
authorship rolec

creates novel organisms or cellsni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/creates-novel-organisms-or-cells

The contribution of creating novel organisms (e.g. mouse mutants) or cells (e.g. tranformed cell lines), either for use in the research, or as a research output of use to others.
belongs to
experimental contributionc

creates novel reagentsni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/creates-novel-reagents

The contribution of creating novel physical or chemical compounds, or molecular biology constructs, either for use in the research, or as a research output of use to others.
belongs to
experimental contributionc

creates softwareni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/creates-software

The contribution of creating computer software, including software for experimental control, analytical tools, mathematical model and computational simulations for use in the research, or of creating an IT service (e.g. a bioinformatics database or Web service) of use to others.
belongs to
experimental contributionc

CTOni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/chief-technology-officer

The role held by a person who is the chief technology officer of an organization, responsible for directing and managing technical developments for that organization.
belongs to
organizational rolec

curatorni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/curator

The role of an agent that documents, cares for and manages collections of objects (for example in a museum) or of data (as in a data repository or database). [A data curator is a curator who specializes in digital data, while a librarian is a type of curator specializing in textual publications.]
belongs to
data rolec

data creatorni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/data-creator

The role a person has of being a creator, originator, gatherer or collector of new data.
belongs to
data rolec

data curatorni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/data-curator

The role a person has of being a data curator, responsible reviewing, enhancing, cleaning, or standardizing data and their associated metadata, for example those arising from the research project, and for their long-term preservation.
belongs to
data rolec

data managerni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/data-manager

The role a person has of being a data manager, responsible for day-to-day management, maintenance and back-up of data, for example those arising from the research project or held in a repository.
belongs to
data rolec

data publisherni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/data-publisher

The role of an agent who publishes data.
belongs to
data rolec

data userni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/data-user

The role a person has of being a user or re-user of existing data.
belongs to
data rolec

departmental administratorni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/departmental-administrator

The role held by a person who is the administrator of a department within a larger organization, for example of a university academic department.
belongs to
organizational rolec

designs experimentsni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/designs-experiments

The contribution of experimental design and planning.
belongs to
intellectual contributionc

develops methodologyni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/develops-methodology

The contribution of developing experimental methodology that enables research.
belongs to
experimental contributionc

directorni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/director

The role held by a person who is in charge of an organization or activity, for example a research institute or a dramatic performance.
belongs to
organizational rolec

doctoral studentni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/doctoral-student

The role of a person registerd for a Ph.D. degree at a university.
belongs to
educational rolec

embargo controllerni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/embargo-controller

The role of the person who has responsibility for setting and lifting embargos that restrict access to a dataset (or a document) for a specified period of time.
belongs to
data rolec

employeeni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/employee

The role held by a person employed for wages or a salary by an organization, to undertake work for that organization.
belongs to
organizational rolec

employerni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/employer

The role held by an agent that employs one or more people to undertake work on that agent's behalf.
belongs to
organizational rolec

ensures regulatory complianceni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/ensures-regulatory-compliance

The contribution of ensuring regulatory compliance for the research undertaken, for example in obtaining informed consent from patients, approval from research ethics or radiation safety committees, or a license for animal experimentation.
belongs to
organizational contributionc

faculty memberni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/faculty-member

The role of an academic employed to undertake research and teaching within a university department, school or institute.
belongs to
educational rolec

financial controllerni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/financial-controller

The role held by an agent of controlling the finances, for example the finances of an organization, a building project or a research project. This role extends to the control of or the authorisation of expenditure from a budget, and may be undertaken by a computational agent.
belongs to
financial rolec

formulates research questionsni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/formulates-research-questions

The contribution of formulating the questions to be answered and the hypotheses to be tested by the research to be undertaken.
belongs to
intellectual contributionc

funderni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/funder

The role held by an agent of providing funds, for example for a research project.
belongs to
financial rolec

funding recipientni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/funding-recipient

The role held by an agent who is the official recipient of funding, for example the university of which a funded research project leader is a member.
belongs to
financial rolec

head of departmentni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/head-of-department

The role held by a person who is the chief executive officer of a department within a larger organization, for example a senior academic who is head of a university academic department.
belongs to
organizational rolec

host institutionni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/host-institution

The role held by a institution of hosting some initiative, people, or event.
belongs to
organizational rolec

illustratorni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/illustrator

The role a person has of being an illustrator of, or for, some entity.
belongs to
authorship rolec

interprets resultsni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/interprets-results

The contribution of interpretation of experimental results.
belongs to
intellectual contributionc

inventorni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/inventor

The role a person has of being the inventor or some entity (for example a computer algorithm, or an experimental procedure).
belongs to
investigation rolec

lead applicantni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/lead-applicant

The role a person has of being the lead applicant on the grant application to obtain funding to fund an endeavour such as a research project.
belongs to
project rolec

leads investigationni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/leads-investigation

The contribution of providing intellectual leadership and direction for the research. Note that an individual other than the principal investigator and the co-investigators may make considerable leadership contributions to a research investigation.
belongs to
intellectual contributionc

maintains IT infrastructureni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/maintains-IT-Infrastructure

The contribution of maintaining the IT infrastructure required for the research.
belongs to
experimental contributionc

maintains organisms or cell culturesni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/maintains-organisms-or-cells

The contribution of maintaining multicellular organisms (plants, animals or fungi) or cell cultures used as experimental subjects, and of breeding these where appropriate. [Note that there may be occasions when it is inappropriate to acknowledge such contributions, for fear of personal reprisals on the individuals involved from animal rights activists].
belongs to
experimental contributionc

maintains research facilityni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/maintains-research-facility

The contribution of managing and operating a research facility, for example a confocal microscopy facility.
belongs to
experimental contributionc

managerni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/manager

The role held by a person responsible for managing the day-to-day activities of an activity, enterprise or organization.
belongs to
organizational rolec

manages projectni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/manages-project

The contribution of project management. Note that an individual other than the person holding the formal role of project manager may make considerable contributions to the management of a research project.
belongs to
organizational contributionc

master studentni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/master-student

The role of a person registerd for a master degree at a university.
belongs to
educational rolec

memberni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/member

The role held by an agent of belonging to a group or organization.
belongs to
organizational rolec

non-academic staff memberni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/non-academic-staff-member

The role of a person employed within a university department, school or institute who is not a member of the academic faculty.
belongs to
organizational rolec

obtains and/or prepared specimensni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/obtains-and-or-prepares-specimens

The contribution of obtaining and/or preparing specimens in a manner requiring research expertise or skill, for example collecting and preparing fossils, or preparing electron microscope specimens for examination.
belongs to
experimental contributionc

organizerni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/organizer

The role held by an agent who organizes something, such as a conference, a private meeting or a public event.
belongs to
organizational rolec

ownerni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/owner

The role held by an agent who is the owner of something with actual or potential financial value, for example a building, a piece of equipment, the copyright of a document, or the intellectual property rights relating to an idea or discovery.
belongs to
financial rolec

participantni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/participant

The role held by an agent who takes part in something, for example a conference, a private meeting or a public event.
belongs to
organizational rolec

partnerni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/partner

The role held by a person who is a partner with one or more other people in an organization, project, endeavour, activity or sphere of common interest.
belongs to
organizational rolec

patent holderni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/patent-holder

The role held by an agent who holds a patent. [See also http://purl.org/spar/scoro/rights-holder and http://purl.org/spar/pro/copyright-owner].
belongs to
organizational rolec

performs experimentsni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/performs-experiments

The contribution of performing experiments.
belongs to
experimental contributionc

photographerni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/photographer

The role a person has of being a photographer of, or for, some entity.
belongs to
authorship rolec

possessorni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/possessor

The role held by an agent as possessor or owner of some entity such as an address or a telephone number.
belongs to
organizational rolec

postdoctoral researcherni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/postdoctoral-researcher

The role a person has of being a post-doctoral researcher involved in a research investigation.
belongs to
investigation rolec

postgraduate studentni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/postgraduate-student

The role of a person registerd for a graduate (masters or doctoral) degree at a university.
belongs to
educational rolec

prepares illustrationsni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/prepares-illustrations

The contribution of selecting the data and preparing the figures and tables presenting these data for inclusion in the publication.
belongs to
authorship contributionc

prepares supplementary informationni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/prepares-supplementary-information

The contribution of preparing the supplementary information files submitted with the manuscript.
belongs to
authorship contributionc

principal authorni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/principal-author

The role an author has of being the principal or primary author of the document, who has contributed most to the work described. (In some communities, but not all, the principal author is named first in the author list. Two or more authors can have the role of principal author if they contributed equally to the work. This role should not be employed in communities in which no primacy of authorship is asserted, but where all authors are deemed to have made an equal contribution to the work.)
belongs to
authorship rolec

principal investigatorni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/principal-investigator

The role a person has of being the principal investigator for a research investigation.
belongs to
investigation rolec

processs datani back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/processes-data

The contribution of processing, cleaning, assembling, condensing or refining the data.
belongs to
experimental contributionc

programme managerni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/programme-manager

The role held by a person who is in charge of a programme of related activities or projects, for example on behalf of a funding agency.
belongs to
organizational rolec

project leaderni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/project-leader

The role a person or an institution has of being project leader for a resource or a project such as a research project.
belongs to
project rolec

project managerni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/project-manager

The role a person has of being project manager for a project such as a research project.
belongs to
project rolec

project memberni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/project-member

The role a person has of being a member of a project such as a research project.
belongs to
project rolec

project studentni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/project-student

The role a person has of being a project student, namely someone engaged in an undergraduate research project as part of studying for an undergraduate degree at a university, whose research will be presented in an undergraduate research project report in part fulfilment of the requirements of that degree.
belongs to
investigation rolec

provided serviceni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/provides-service

The contribution of providing a research service, for example a DNA sequencing service or a custom peptide synthesis service.
belongs to
experimental contributionc

provides administrative supportni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/provides-administrative-support

The contribution of providing administrative support for the research project.
belongs to
organizational contributionc

provides adviceni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/provides-advice

The contribution of providing advice to facilitate the research, while not actively participating in the work.
belongs to
intellectual contributionc

provides existing datani back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/provides-exising-data

The contribution of providing pre-existing data for re-use in the research.
belongs to
experimental contributionc

provides patientsni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/provides-patients

The contribution of providing access to medical or veterinary patients, to make possible the research.
belongs to
experimental contributionc

provides reagents, specimens or materialsni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/provides-reagents-specimens-or-materials

The contribution of providing reagents, specimens or materials, including living organisms and cells, for example those not readily obtainable from commercial sources, to make possible the research.
belongs to
experimental contributionc

provides softwareni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/provides-software

The contribution of providing software to facilitate the research, while not actively participating in the work.
belongs to
experimental contributionc

provides technical supportni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/provides-technical-support

The contribution of providing technical support that facilitates research.
belongs to
experimental contributionc

provides tools, equipment or facilitiesni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/provides-tools-equipment-or-facilities

The contribution of providing tools, equipment or facilities for the research, while not actively participating in the work.
belongs to
experimental contributionc

publishes datani back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/publishes-data

The contribution of publishing in a public database or data repository data arising from the research. Note that this activity is distinct from that of publishing a journal article containing a selection of these data.
belongs to
authorship contributionc

purchaserni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/purchaser

The role held by an agent of making purchases of goods or services, the cost of which is typically charged to a particular academic budget, for example a project manager placing an order to purchase equipment funded from a research grant.
belongs to
financial rolec

registrarni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/registrar

The role held by an agent responsible for maintaining official records, for example the records of student enrollment and academic standing held by a college or university, or the records of securities owned by a financial institution.
belongs to
organizational rolec

registration agencyni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/registration-agency

The role of an agent officially appointed by a Registration Authority that acts to register things. For example, CrossRef is a registration agency for DOIs relating to documents, while DataCite is a registration agency for DOIs relating to datasets, both acting for the Registration Authority for DOIs, namely the International DOI Foundation (IDF).
belongs to
organizational rolec

registration authorityni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/registration-authority

The role of an agent with responsibility for registering and maintaining international standards, internet domain names, patents, controlled vocabularies and other similar entities required for reliable international cooperatative activities. For example, the International DOI Foundation (IDF) is the Registration Authority for DOIs.
belongs to
organizational rolec

repository managerni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/repository-manager

The role a person has of being a manager of a repository where entities are given secure long-term storage, typically digital repository for information objects, for example a data repository.
belongs to
data rolec

research assistantni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/research-assistant

The role a person has of being a research assistant involved in a research investigation.
belongs to
investigation rolec

research studentni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/research-student

The role a person has of being a research student, namely someone engaged in research as part of studying for a higher degree at a university or research institute, whose research will be presented in a thesis in part fulfilment of the requirements of that degree.
belongs to
investigation rolec

researcherni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/researcher

The role a person has of being a researcher involved in a research investigation, for example by conducting experiments, collecting and analyzing data, or undertaking formal study.
belongs to
investigation rolec

revises manuscriptni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/revises-manuscript

The contribution of critically reviewing and revising drafts of the manuscript of the research paper.
belongs to
authorship contributionc

rights holderni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/rights-holder

The role held by an agent who holds, owns and manages the legal rights to a project or activity and its products and outcomes, for example the exploitation, licensing and intellectual property rights. [See also http://purl.org/spar/scoro/patent-holder and http://purl.org/spar/pro/copyright-owner].
belongs to
organizational rolec

scholarni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/scholar

The role of an academic who undertakes scholarly activities, including research investigations. This role is particularly used to describe endeavours in the arts and humanites that are frequently undertaken without financial support from a particular funded project dedicated to these scholarly activities.
belongs to
investigation rolec

secures fundingni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/secures-funding

The contribution of securing funding for the research project. Note that an individual other than the lead applicant and the co-applicants on a grant application may make contributions to securing funding for a research project, for example by assisting in writing the grant application.
belongs to
organizational contributionc

senior authorni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/senior-author

The role an author has of being the senior author of the document.
belongs to
authorship rolec

service engineerni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/service-engineer

The role held by a person who services, maintains and repairs equipment, facilities or technical infrastructure.
belongs to
investigation rolec

spokespersonni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/spokesperson

The role held by a person who makes statements on behalf of another individual, a group, a project or an institution
belongs to
organizational rolec

sponsorni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/sponsor

The role held by an agent that provides funds or support for a person, project or activity, often in return for access to the exploitable commercial potential associated with that person’s work, or that project or activity’s output, for example through equity sharing or publicity. [Note: there are also several other non-financial meaning of 'sponsor'.]
belongs to
financial rolec

stakeholderni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/stakeholder

The role held by an agent with an interest or concern in something, for example the creation of a new university.
belongs to
organizational rolec

sub-contractorni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/sub-contractor

The role held by an agent who enters into a contract to take over part of another contractor's obligation to undertake specified work or supply specified services in return for payment.
belongs to
financial rolec

successorni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/successor

The relationship held by an entity that succeeds another, for example a new electron microscope that replaces an out-dated one, a research project that follows on from a preceding project, or a faculty member who succeeds a colleague as head of department.
belongs to
organizational rolec

Supervises, mentors or trains colleaguesni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/supervises-colleagues

The contribution of supervising, mentoring, instructing or training colleagues, particularly junior research assistants and research students, in aspects of the research or its methodologies.
belongs to
organizational contributionc

supervisorni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/supervisor

The role of a person who guides and oversees the research activities of a team member, or who formally supervises a student during that student's research project undertaken as part of a degree course at a university.
belongs to
educational rolec

supplierni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/supplier

The role held by an agent of providing goods or services in exchange for payment.
belongs to
financial rolec

technicianni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/technician

The role a person has of being a technician, providing technical assistance in some endeavour such as a research investigation.
belongs to
investigation rolec

undergraduate studentni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/undergraduate-student

The role of a person registerd for an undergraduate degree at a university.
belongs to
educational rolec

undertakes modellingni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/undertakes-modelling

The contribution of design, implementation and analysis of mathematical models or computer simulations.
belongs to
intellectual contributionc

vice-chancellorni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/vice-chancellor

The role held by the chief executive officer of a university, responsible for directing and managing its business and academic activities.
belongs to
organizational rolec

web-masterni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/web-master

The role of a person responsible for maintaining a web site and its content.
belongs to
data rolec

workpackage leaderni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/workpackage-leader

The role a person or institution has of being leader for a workpackage or sub-project within a project such as a research project, with responsibility for ensuring that the proposed work is undertaken and documented, the generated data are properly curated and archived, and the results are published and reported to the funding agency.
belongs to
project rolec

writes manuscript draftni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/scoro/writes-manuscript-draft

The contribution of writing the initial draft of the manuscript of the research paper.
belongs to
authorship contributionc

Annotation Properties

commentap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#comment

contributorap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/contributor

creatorap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/creator

dateap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/date

descriptionap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/description

labelap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#label

rightsap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/rights

see alsoap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#seeAlso

titleap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/title

version infoap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#versionInfo

General Axioms

All Disjoint Classes back to ToC

authorship rolec, data rolec, financial rolec, investigation rolec, organizational rolec, project rolec

All Disjoint Classes back to ToC

authorship contributionc, experimental contributionc, intellectual contributionc, organizational contributionc

Namespace Declarations back to ToC

default namespace
http://purl.org/spar/scoro/
0-1
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/
dc
http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/
owl
http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#
pro
http://purl.org/spar/pro/
rdf
http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#
rdfs
http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#
scoro
https://svn.code.sf.net/p/sempublishing/code/SCoRO/
spar
http://purl.org/spar/
timeindexedsituation-owl
http://www.ontologydesignpatterns.org/cp/owl/timeindexedsituation.owl#
tvc
http://www.essepuntato.it/2012/04/tvc/
xsd
http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#

This HTML document was obtained by processing the OWL ontology source code through LODE, Live OWL Documentation Environment, developed by Silvio Peroni.