The Discourse Elements Ontology
(DEO)

IRI:
http://purl.org/spar/deo
Date:
03/07/2015
Current version:
1.1
Authors:
David Shotton
Silvio Peroni

Abstract

The Discourse Elements Ontology is an ontology for describing the major rhetorical elements of a document such as a journal article. It is a subsidiary ontology that is imported into the Document Components Ontology, itself part of SPAR, the Semantic Publishing and Referencing Ontologies. Other SPAR ontologies are described at http://purl.org/spar/.

Table of Content

  1. Introduction
  2. Classes
  3. Object Properties
  4. Annotation Properties
  5. Namespace Declarations

Introduction

DEO, The Discourse Elements Ontology, is an ontology written in OWL 2 DL that provides a structured vocabulary for rhetorical elements within documents (e.g. Introduction, Discussion, Acknowledgements, Reference List, Figures, Appendix), enabling these to be described in RDF. It uses some of the rhetorical block elements from the SALT Rhetorical Ontology and the Ontology of Rhetorical Blocks.

Classes

acknowledgementsc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/orb/1.0/Acknowledgements

is equivalent to
acknowledgementsc

acknowledgementsc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/deo/Acknowledgements

Usually part of the preface, or a separate section in its own right, often as part of the back matter, it acknowledges those, including funding agencies, who contributed to the undertaking of a research project described in a publication, or to the creation of the work in some way. In scientific articles, the acknowledgements are usually placed as a separated section immediately following the Discussion or Conclusions.
has super-classes
discourse elementc

author contributionc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/deo/AuthorContribution

A description of the roles played by an author in the publication.
has super-classes
discourse elementc

backgroundc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/deo/Background

Presentation of information that is essential for understanding the situation or problem that is the subject of the publication. In a journal article, the background is usually part of the Introduction, but may be present as separated section.
is equivalent to
backgroundc
has super-classes
discourse elementc

bibliographic referencec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/deo/BibliographicReference

A reference, usually contained in a footnote or a bibliographic reference list, that refer to another publication, such as a journal article, a book, a book chapter or a Web site. The inclusion of the bibliographic reference in a publication constitutes the performative act of bibliographic citation.
has super-classes
referencesc
referencec

biographyc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/deo/Biography

Information describing a person and his or her life history and contributions.
has super-classes
discourse elementc

captionc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/deo/Caption

Text accompanying another item, such as a picture.
has super-classes
discourse elementc
has sub-classes
legendc

conclusionc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/orb/1.0/Conclusion

is equivalent to
conclusionc

conclusionc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/deo/Conclusion

A reflection on the preceding text, summarizing the evidence, arguments or premises presented in the document and their logical outcomes. Conclusions are a fundamental feature in academic research publications, and may be included in the Discussion section.
is equivalent to
conclusionc
has super-classes
discourse elementc

contributionc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/deo/Contribution

A description of the part that this publication plays in the overall field.
is equivalent to
contributionc
has super-classes
discourse elementc

datac back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/deo/Data

A textual description of data used or produced in the work which the document describes, or the data themselves.
has super-classes
discourse elementc

dataset descriptionc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/deo/DatasetDescription

Information describing a dataset held in an external database or repository and including a reference to it, such as a database ID or an accession number.
has super-classes
external resource descriptionc

dedicationc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/deo/Dedication

Text in which the author names the person or people for whom he/she has written the document, or to whose memory it is dedicated.
has super-classes
discourse elementc

discourse elementc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/deo/DiscourseElement

An element of a document that carries out a rhetorical function.
has super-classes
thingc
has sub-classes
acknowledgementsc, author contributionc, backgroundc, biographyc, captionc, conclusionc, contributionc, datac, dedicationc, discussionc, epiloguec, evaluationc, future workc, introductionc, materialsc, methodsc, modelc, motivationc, postscriptc, problem statementc, prologuec, referencec, related workc, resultsc, scenarioc

discussionc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/orb/1.0/Discussion

is equivalent to
discussionc

discussionc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/deo/Discussion

An interpretation and discussion of the results obtained and an analysis of their significance, in support of conclusions. These conclusions may be part of this discussion or may be included in a separate section of the document.
is equivalent to
discussionc
has super-classes
discourse elementc

epiloguec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/deo/Epilogue

A piece of writing at the end of a work of literature or drama, usually used to bring closure to the work.
has super-classes
discourse elementc

evaluationc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/deo/Evaluation

A consideration of the value, meaning and significance of the results obtained.
is equivalent to
evaluationc
has super-classes
discourse elementc

external resource descriptionc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/deo/ExternalResourceDescription

Information describing an external resource and including a reference to that resource.
has super-classes
discourse elementc and (has partop some referencec)
has sub-classes
dataset descriptionc, supplementary information descriptionc

future workc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/deo/FutureWork

A proposal for new investigation to be undertaken in order to continue and advance the work described in the publication.
has super-classes
discourse elementc

introductionc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/orb/1.0/Introduction

is equivalent to
introductionc

introductionc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/deo/Introduction

An initial description which states the purpose and goals of the following writing, and, in the case of journal articles, typically includes background information on the research topic and a review of related work in the area.
has super-classes
discourse elementc

legendc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/deo/Legend

Informative text that explicitly explains another item, such as a figure or a table.
has super-classes
captionc

materialsc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/deo/Materials

A description in a research paper documenting the specialized materials used in the work described. This description is often combined with a description of the methods used, in a section entitled 'Methods and Materials', 'Experimental' or a related term.
has super-classes
discourse elementc

methodsc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/orb/1.0/Methods

is equivalent to
methodsc

methodsc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/deo/Methods

A description in a research paper documenting the specialized methods used in the work described. This description is often combined with a description of the materials used, in a section entitled 'Methods and Materials', 'Experimental' or a related term.
has super-classes
discourse elementc

modelc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/deo/Model

A description of a model used or produced by the work described in the publication.
has super-classes
discourse elementc

motivationc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/deo/Motivation

A description of the justification for undertaking the work described in the publication.
is equivalent to
motivationc
has super-classes
discourse elementc

postscriptc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/deo/Postscript

Text added after the signature of a letter, or sometimes after the main body of an essay or book.
has super-classes
discourse elementc

problem statementc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/deo/ProblemStatement

has super-classes
discourse elementc
A concise description of the issues that needed to be addressed by a work described in the document.

prologuec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/deo/Prologue

A piece of writing at the beginning of a work of literature or drama, usually used to set the scene or to introduce the work.
has super-classes
discourse elementc

referencec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/deo/Reference

A reference to a specific part of the document, or to another publication.
has super-classes
discourse elementc
has sub-classes
bibliographic referencec

related workc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/deo/RelatedWork

The authors' critical review of current knowledge by specific reference to others' work, both in terms of substantive findings and theoretical and methodological contributions to a particular topic. This description is often included within the introduction section.
has super-classes
discourse elementc

resultsc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/orb/1.0/Results

is equivalent to
resultsc

resultsc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/deo/Results

The report of the specific findings of an investigation, given without discussion or conclusion being drawn.
has super-classes
discourse elementc

scenarioc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/deo/Scenario

A presentation of a use case or test, based on a real or hypothetical situation, used to help someone think through a complex problem or system.
is equivalent to
scenarioc
has super-classes
discourse elementc

supplementary information descriptionc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/deo/SupplementaryInformationDescription

Information describing supplementary information relating to the document, including references or links to the relevant supplementary information.
has super-classes
external resource descriptionc

Object Properties

has partop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/dc/terms/hasPart

A related resource that is included either physically or logically in the described resource.

has characteristics: transitive

has super-properties
has relationop
is inverse of
is part ofop

has relationop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/dc/terms/relation

A related resource.

has characteristics: symmetric

has super-properties
top object propertyop
has sub-properties
has partop, is part ofop

is part ofop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/dc/terms/isPartOf

A related resource in which the described resource is physically or logically included.

has characteristics: transitive

has super-properties
has relationop
is inverse of
has partop

Annotation Properties

commentap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#comment

creatorap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/creator

dateap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/date

descriptionap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/description

labelap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#label

rightsap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/rights

titleap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/title

Namespace Declarations back to ToC

default namespace
http://purl.org/spar/deo#
1-0
http://purl.org/orb/1.0/
dc
http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/
deo
http://purl.org/spar/deo/
owl
http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#
rdf
http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#
rdfs
http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#
spar
http://purl.org/spar/
sro
http://salt.semanticauthoring.org/ontologies/sro#
terms
http://purl.org/dc/terms/
xsd
http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#

This HTML document was obtained by processing the OWL ontology source code through LODE, Live OWL Documentation Environment, developed by Silvio Peroni.